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Probing Upflowing Regions in the Quiet Sun and Coronal Holes

AuthorSchwanitz, Conrad; Harra, Louise; Raouafi, Nour; Sterling, Alphonse; Vacas, Alejandro; Iniesta, Jose; arez, David; Hara, Hirohisa;
KeywordsParker Data Used; Corona; structures; Coronal holes; Jets; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
AbstractRecent observations from Parker Solar Probe have revealed that the solar wind has a highly variable structure. How this complex behaviour is formed in the solar corona is not yet known, since it requires omnipresent fluctuations, which constantly emit material to feed the wind. In this article we analyse 14 upflow regions in the solar corona to find potential sources for plasma flow. The upflow regions are derived from spectroscopic data from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode determining their Doppler velocity and defining regions which have blueshifts stronger than \ensuremath-6 kms\ensuremath-$^1$. To identify the sources of these blueshift data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the X-ray Telescope (XRT), on board Hinode, are used. The analysis reveals that only 5 out of 14 upflows are associated with frequent transients, like obvious jets or bright points. In contrast to that, seven events are associated with small-scale features, which show a large variety of dynamics. Some resemble small bright points, while others show an eruptive nature, all of which are faint and only live for a few minutes; we cannot rule out that several of these sources may be fainter and, hence, less obvious jets. Since the complex structure of the solar wind is known, this suggests that new sources have to be considered or better methods used to analyse the known sources. This work shows that small and frequent features, which were previously neglected, can cause strong upflows in the solar corona. These results emphasise the importance of the first observations from the Extreme- Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on board Solar Orbiter, which revealed complex small-scale coronal structures.
Year of Publication2021
Number of Pages175
Date Publisheddec