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The 18-19 March 2022 series of $^3$He-rich events observed by Solar Orbiter at 0.36 au compared with EUV, X-ray, and radio observations

AuthorMason, G.~M.; Nitta, N.~V.; ik, Bu\vc\; omez-Herrero, R.; Krupar, V.; Krucker, S.; Ho, G.~C.; Allen, R.~C.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.~F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Vecchio, A.; Maksimovic, M.;
KeywordsParker Data Used; acceleration of particles; Sun: flares; Sun: particle emission; Sun: radio radiation; Sun: UV radiation; Sun: X-rays; gamma rays
AbstractContext. During the first close perihelion pass of Solar Orbiter, a series of impulsive $^3$He-rich solar particle events was observed on 18-19 March 2022 from a distance of 0.36 au. In addition to the energetic particle, radio, and X-ray data from Solar Orbiter, the events were observed in radio and/or extreme ultraviolet by STEREO-A, SDO, Wind, and Parker Solar Probe. \ Aims: Observations of the event series along with remote sensing of flaring and radio emission with only small timing delays due to the close distance allow the association with energetic particles to be determined with much higher accuracy than previously possible from 1 au. \ Methods: By comparing the onsets of type-III bursts with the arrival of electrons of tens of keV at Solar Orbiter only a few minutes later, it can be seen that, overall, each of the more intense type-III bursts was associated with an electron and ion injection. Extreme ultraviolet data show that the times of the type-III bursts coincide with emission from a small (approximately Earth-sized) loop to the west of a nearby active region. \ Results: The energetic particle spectra and abundances show typical properties of impulsive $^3$He- rich flares and, when combined with the remote sensing observations, establish that the particle-accelerating mechanism in this series of events operates near the solar surface in association with magnetic loops, and in the absence of other phenomena such as jets and small coronal mass ejections. \\Movie associated to Fig. 4 is available at
Year of Publication2023
Number of PagesL16
Date Publishedjan