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LOFAR Observations of Substructure Within a Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance at Mid-Latitude

AuthorDorrian, Gareth; Fallows, Richard; Wood, Alan; Themens, David; Boyde, Ben; Krankowski, Andrzej; Bisi, Mario; browski, Bartosz; Vocks, Christian;
KeywordsParker Data Used; traveling ionospheric disturbance; ionospheric scintillation; LOw frequency ARray
AbstractThe large scale morphology and finer sub-structure within a slowly propagating traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) are studied using wide band trans-ionospheric radio observations with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR; van Haarlem et al., 2013, .1051/0004-6361/201220873). The observations were made under geomagnetically quiet conditions, between 0400 and 0800 on 7 January 2019, over the UK. In combination with ionograms and Global Navigation Satellite System Total Electron Content anomaly data we estimate the TID velocity to \ensuremath\sim60 ms$^-1$, in a North-westerly direction. Clearly defined substructures with oscillation periods of \ensuremath\sim300 s were identified within the TID, corresponding to scale sizes of 20 km. At the geometries and observing wavelengths involved, the Fresnel scale is between 3 and 4 km, hence these substructures contribute significant refractive scattering to the received LOFAR signal. The refractive scattering is strongly coherent across the LOFAR bandwidth used here (25-64 MHz). The size of these structures distinguishes them from previously identified ionospheric scintillation with LOFAR in Fallows et al. (2020), /2020010, where the scale sizes of the plasma structure varied from \ensuremath\sim500 m to 5 km.
Year of Publication2023
JournalSpace Weather
Number of Pagese2022SW003198
Date Publishedjan