# PSP Bibliography

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Enhanced proton parallel temperature inside patches of switchbacks in the inner heliosphere

 Author Woodham, L.; Horbury, T.; Matteini, L.; Woolley, T.; Laker, R.; Bale, S.; Nicolaou, G.; Stawarz, J.; Stansby, D.; Hietala, H.; Larson, D.; Livi, R.; Verniero, J.; McManus, M.; Kasper, J.; Korreck, K.; Raouafi, N.; Moncuquet, M.; Pulupa, M.; Keywords Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus Abstract Context. Switchbacks are discrete angular deflections in the solar wind magnetic field that have been observed throughout the heliosphere. Recent observations by Parker Solar Probe (PSP) have revealed the presence of patches of switchbacks on the scale of hours to days, separated by quieter radial fields. \ Aims: We aim to further diagnose the origin of these patches using measurements of proton temperature anisotropy that can illuminate possible links to formation processes in the solar corona. \ Methods: We fitted 3D bi-Maxwellian functions to the core of proton velocity distributions measured by the SPAN-Ai instrument onboard PSP to obtain the proton parallel, T$_p,\ensuremath\parallel$, and perpendicular, T$_p,⊥$, temperature. \ Results: We show that the presence of patches is highlighted by a transverse deflection in the flow and magnetic field away from the radial direction. These deflections are correlated with enhancements in T$_p,\ensuremath\parallel$, while T$_p,⊥$ remains relatively constant. Patches sometimes exhibit small proton and electron density enhancements. \ Conclusions: We interpret that patches are not simply a group of switchbacks, but rather switchbacks are embedded within a larger-scale structure identified by enhanced T$_p,\ensuremath\parallel$ that is distinct from the surrounding solar wind. We suggest that these observations are consistent with formation by reconnection-associated mechanisms in the corona. Year of Publication 2020 Journal Astronomy and Astrophysics Volume 650 Number of Pages L1 Section Date Published jun ISBN URL "https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039415" DOI "10.1051/0004-6361/202039415"