# PSP Bibliography

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## Found 131 entries in the Bibliography.

### Showing entries from 51 through 100

 2022 Solar Chromospheric Network as a Source for Solar Wind Switchbacks Recent studies suggest that the magnetic switchbacks (SBs) detected by the Parker Solar Probe carry information on the scales of solar supergranulation (large scale) and granulation (medium scale). We test this claim using high-resolution H\ensuremath\alpha images obtained with the visible spectropolarimeters of the Goode Solar Telescope in Big Bear Solar Observatory. As possible solar sources, we count all the spicule-like features standing along the chromospheric networks near the coronal hole boundary visible in the H\ens ... Lee, Jeongwoo; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Wang, Haimin; Yang, Xu; Cao, Wenda; Oliveros, Juan; Published by: \apjl      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac86bf Preferential Heating of Protons over Electrons from Coherent Structures during the First Perihelion of the Parker Solar Probe The solar wind undergoes significant heating as it propagates away from the Sun; the exact mechanisms responsible for this heating remain unclear. Using data from the first perihelion of the Parker Solar Probe mission, we examine the properties of proton and electron heating occurring within magnetic coherent structures identified by means of the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method. Statistically, regions of space with strong gradients in the magnetic field, PVI \ensuremath\geq 1, are associated with strongly enhance ... Sioulas, Nikos; Shi, Chen; Huang, Zesen; Velli, Marco; Published by: \apjl      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac85de Linking Small-scale Solar Wind Properties with Large-scale Coronal Source Regions through Joint Parker Solar Probe-Metis/Solar Orbiter Observations The solar wind measured in situ by Parker Solar Probe in the very inner heliosphere is studied in combination with the remote-sensing observation of the coronal source region provided by the METIS coronagraph aboard Solar Orbiter. The coronal outflows observed near the ecliptic by Metis on 2021 January 17 at 16:30 UT, between 3.5 and 6.3 R $_\ensuremath\odot$ above the eastern solar limb, can be associated with the streams sampled by PSP at 0.11 and 0.26 au from the Sun, in two time intervals almost 5 days apart. The two pla ... Telloni, Daniele; Zank, Gary; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Amicis, Raffaella; Panasenco, Olga; Susino, Roberto; Bruno, Roberto; Perrone, Denise; Adhikari, Laxman; Liang, Haoming; Nakanotani, Masaru; Zhao, Lingling; Hadid, Lina; anchez-Cano, Beatriz; Verscharen, Daniel; Velli, Marco; Grimani, Catia; Marino, Raffaele; Carbone, Francesco; Mancuso, Salvatore; Biondo, Ruggero; Pagano, Paolo; Reale, Fabio; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Case, Anthony; de Wit, Thierry; Goetz, Keith; Harvey, Peter; Korreck, Kelly; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; MacDowall, Robert; Malaspina, David; Pulupa, Marc; Stevens, Michael; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Romoli, Marco; Andretta, Vincenzo; Da Deppo, Vania; Fineschi, Silvano; Heinzel, Petr; Moses, John; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Spadaro, Daniele; Stangalini, Marco; Teriaca, Luca; Capobianco, Gerardo; Capuano, Giuseppe; Casini, Chiara; Casti, Marta; Chioetto, Paolo; Corso, Alain; De Leo, Yara; Fabi, Michele; Frassati, Federica; Frassetto, Fabio; Giordano, Silvio; Guglielmino, Salvo; Jerse, Giovanna; Landini, Federico; Liberatore, Alessandro; Magli, Enrico; Massone, Giuseppe; Messerotti, Mauro; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Pelizzo, Maria; Romano, Paolo; Sasso, Clementina; Schühle, Udo; Slemer, Alessandra; Straus, Thomas; Uslenghi, Michela; Volpicelli, Cosimo; Zangrilli, Luca; Zuppella, Paola; Abbo, Lucia; Auchère, Fr\; Cuadrado, Regina; Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Ciaravella, Angela; Lamy, Philippe; Lanzafame, Alessandro; Malvezzi, Marco; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; o, Giuseppe; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami; Strachan, Leonard; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Ventura, Rita; Vial, Jean-Claude; Woch, Joachim; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac8103 Magnetic Field Dropouts and Associated Plasma Wave Emission near the Electron Plasma Frequency at Switchback Boundaries as Observed by the Parker Solar Probe The first solar encounters by the Parker Solar Probe revealed the magnetic field to be dominated by short field reversals in the radial direction, referred to as switchbacks. While radial velocity and proton temperature were shown to increase inside the switchbacks, \ensuremath\midB\ensuremath\mid exhibits very brief dropouts only at the switchback boundaries. Brief intensifications in spectral density measurements near the electron plasma frequency, f $_pe$, were also observed at these boundaries, indicating the presenc ... Rasca, Anthony; Farrell, William; Whittlesey, Phyllis; MacDowall, Robert; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac80c3 New Insights into the First Two PSP Solar Encounters Enabled by Modeling Analysis with ADAPT-WSA Parker Solar Probe s (PSP s) unique orbital path allows us to observe the solar wind closer to the Sun than ever before. Essential to advancing our knowledge of solar wind and energetic particle formation is identifying the sources of PSP observations. We report on results for the first two PSP solar encounters derived using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model driven by Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model maps. We derive the coronal magnetic field and the 1 R $_\ensuremath\odot$ source regions ... Wallace, Samantha; Jones, Shaela; Arge, Nick; Viall, Nicholeen; Henney, Carl; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac731c Turbulence and Waves in the Sub-Alfv\ enic Solar Wind Observed by the Parker Solar Probe during Encounter 10 During its 10th orbit around the Sun, the Parker Solar Probe sampled two intervals where the local Alfv\ en speed exceeded the solar wind speed, lasting more than 10 hours in total. In this paper, we analyze the turbulence and wave properties during these periods. The turbulence is observed to be Alfv\ enic and unbalanced, dominated by outward-propagating modes. The power spectrum of the outward-propagating Elsässer z $^+$ mode steepens at high frequencies while that of the inward- propagating z $^-$ mode flattens. The obse ... Zhao, L.; Zank, G.~P.; Adhikari, L.; Telloni, D.; Stevens, M.; Kasper, J.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Raouafi, N.~E.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac8353 Patches of Magnetic Switchbacks and Their Origins Parker Solar Probe (PSP) has shown that the solar wind in the inner heliosphere is characterized by the quasi omnipresence of magnetic switchbacks ( switchback hereinafter), local backward bends of magnetic field lines. Switchbacks also tend to come in patches, with a large-scale modulation that appears to have a spatial scale size comparable to supergranulation on the Sun. Here we inspect data from the first 10 encounters of PSP focusing on different time intervals when clear switchback patches were observed by PSP. We s ... Shi, Chen; Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco; Tenerani, Anna; Verniero, Jaye; Sioulas, Nikos; Huang, Zesen; Brosius, A.; Bale, Stuart; Klein, Kristopher; Kasper, Justin; de Wit, Thierry; Goetz, Keith; Harvey, Peter; MacDowall, Robert; Malaspina, David; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; Case, Anthony; Stevens, Michael; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7c11 The Turbulent Properties of the Sub-Alfv\ enic Solar Wind Measured by the Parker Solar Probe For the first time, Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observed the sub- Alfv\ enic solar wind where the solar wind bulk speed drops below the local Alfv\ en speed for an extended period of time. Here, we report on the turbulent properties of the sub- Alfv\ enic region. We analyze the turbulence correlation length and the energy transfer and compare the results with nearby super-Alfv\ enic regions. As the Alfv\ en speed is larger or comparable to the solar wind speed in the intervals studied, we use a modified Taylor s hypothesis to a ... Zhao, L.; Zank, G.~P.; Telloni, D.; Stevens, M.; Kasper, J.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: apr YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac5fb0 Using Single-view Observations of Cometary Plasma Tails to Infer Solar Wind Speed A comet plasma tail is a product of the interaction between the solar wind and the comet s coma, and has long been studied as a natural probe of the solar wind condition. We previously developed a method to derive the solar wind speed from dual-view observations of comet plasma tails. Here we improve the method to use single-view observations by assuming a radially propagating solar wind and apply it to two comets, C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy) and C/2012 S1 (ISON) observed by coronagraphs on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observato ... Cheng, Long; Wang, Yuming; Li, Xiaolei; Published by: \apj      Published on: apr YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac5410 Solar Wind Model Supported by Parker Solar Probe Observations During Faint Venusian Auroral Emission The encounter of the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) with Venus during the Venus Gravity Assist 3 on 2020 July 11 provided a unique opportunity to gather in situ solar wind data in the Venusian environment while also being able to observe Venus from ground- based facilities on Earth. The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model was used to make accurate predictions of solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field polarity at Earth and STEREO-A, as compared to in situ data at each spacecraft. The same model was then used to predict sol ... Kovac, Sarah; Gray, Candace; Arge, Nick; Chanover, Nancy; Churchill, Christopher; Szabo, Adam; Hill, Matthew; McAteer, James; Published by: \apj      Published on: apr YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac58f4 Markovian Features of the Solar Wind at Subproton Scales The interplanetary magnetic field carried out from the Sun by the solar wind displays fluctuations over a wide range of scales. While at large scales, say at frequencies lower than 0.1-1 Hz, fluctuations display the universal character of fully developed turbulence with a well-defined Kolmogorov-like inertial range, the physical and dynamical properties of the small-scale regime as well as their connection with the large-scale ones are still a debated topic. In this work we investigate the near-Sun magnetic field fluctuation ... Benella, Simone; Stumpo, Mirko; Consolini, Giuseppe; Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Laurenza, Monica; Published by: \apjl      Published on: apr YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac6107 Anisotropy of Magnetic Field Spectra at Kinetic Scales of Solar Wind Turbulence as Revealed by the Parker Solar Probe in the Inner Heliosphere Using the Parker Solar Probe data taken in the inner heliosphere, we investigate the power and spatial anisotropy of magnetic field spectra at kinetic scales (i.e., around sub-ion scales) in solar wind turbulence in the inner heliosphere. We find that strong anisotropy of the magnetic spectra occurs at kinetic scales with the strongest power in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field (forming an angle \ensuremath\theta $_B$ with the mean flow velocity). The spectral index of the magnetic spectra ... Huang, S.~Y.; Xu, S.~B.; Zhang, J.; Sahraoui, F.; es, Andr\; He, J.~S.; Yuan, Z.~G.; Deng, X.~H.; Jiang, K.; Wei, Y.~Y.; Xiong, Q.~Y.; Wang, Z.; Yu, L.; Lin, R.~T.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: apr YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac5f02 Kinetic-scale Current Sheets in Near-Sun Solar Wind: Properties, Scale-dependent Features and Reconnection Onset We present statistical analysis of 11,200 proton kinetic-scale current sheets (CS) observed by the Parker Solar Probe during 10 days around the first perihelion. The CS thickness {\ensuremath{\lambda}} is in the range from a few to 200 km with the typical value around 30 km, while current densities are in the range from 0.1 to 10 {\ensuremath{\mu}}A m$^{-2}$ with the typical value around 0.7 {\ensuremath{\mu}}A m$^{-2}$. These CSs are resolved thanks to magnetic field measurements at 73-290 samples s$^{-1}$ resolution. In te ... Lotekar, A.~B.; Vasko, I.~Y.; Phan, T.; Bale, S.~D.; Bowen, T.~A.; Halekas, J.; Artemyev, A.~V.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Mozer, F.~S.; Published by: \apj      Published on: apr YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac5bd9 2021 Nonlinear Wave-Wave Coupling Related to Whistler-mode and Electron Bernstein Waves Observed by the Parker Solar Probe We report nonlinear wave-wave coupling related to whistler-mode or electron Bernstein waves in the near-Sun slow solar wind with Parker Solar Probe (PSP) data. Prominent plasma wave power enhancements usually exist near the electron gyrofrequency (f$_ce$), identified as electrostatic whistler-mode and electron Bernstein waves (Malaspina et al. 2020). We find that these plasma waves near f$_ce$ typically have a harmonic spectral structure and further classify them into three types identified by the characteristics of wave fre ... Ma, Jiuqi; Gao, Xinliang; Yang, Zhongwei; Tsurutani, Bruce; Liu, Mingzhe; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Shui; Published by: \apj      Published on: sep YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac0ef4 Triggered Ion-acoustic Waves in the Solar Wind For more than 12 hr beginning on 2021 January 18, continuous narrowband electrostatic emissions were observed on the Parker Solar Probe near 20 solar radii. The observed <1000 Hz frequencies were well below the local ion-plasma frequency. Surprisingly, the emissions consisted of electrostatic wave packets with shock- like envelopes, appearing repetitively at a \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde1.5 Hz rate. This repetitiveness correlated and was in phase with low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations. The emissions were associat ... Mozer, F.~S.; Vasko, I.~Y.; Verniero, J.~L.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: sep YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac2259 On the Origin of Switchbacks Observed in the Solar Wind The origin of switchbacks in the solar wind is discussed in two classes of theory that differ in the location of the source being either near the transition region near the Sun or in the solar wind itself. The two classes of theory differ in their predictions of the switchback rate (the number of switchbacks observed per hour) as a function of distance from the Sun. To distinguish between these theories, one-hour averages of Parker Solar Probe data were averaged over five orbits to find the following: (1) The hourly averaged ... Mozer, F.~S.; Bale, S.~D.; Bonnell, J.~W.; Drake, J.~F.; Hanson, E.~L.~M.; Mozer, M.~C.; Published by: \apj      Published on: sep YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac110d On the Role of Solar Wind Expansion as a Source of Whistler Waves: Scattering of Suprathermal Electrons and Heat Flux Regulation in the Inner Heliosphere The role of solar wind expansion in generating whistler waves is investigated using the EB-iPic3D code, which models solar wind expansion self-consistently within a fully kinetic semi-implicit approach. The simulation is initialized with an electron velocity distribution function modeled after observations of the Parker Solar Probe during its first perihelion at 0.166 au, consisting of a dense core and an antisunward strahl. This distribution function is initially stable with respect to kinetic instabilities. Expansion drive ... Micera, A.; Zhukov, A.~N.; opez, R.~A.; Boella, E.; Tenerani, A.; Velli, M.; Lapenta, G.; Innocenti, M.~E.; Published by: \apj      Published on: sep YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1067 The Evolution of Compressible Solar Wind Turbulence in the Inner Heliosphere: PSP, THEMIS, and MAVEN Observations The first computations of the compressible energy transfer rate from \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde0.2 up to \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde1.7 au is obtained using Parker Solar Probe (PSP), Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) observations. Using a recently derived exact relation for isothermal magnetohydrodynamics turbulence, the compressible energy cascade rate, \ensuremath\varepsilon$_C$, is computed for hundred of events at differ ... es, Andr\; Sahraoui, F.; Hadid, L.~Z.; Huang, S.~Y.; Romanelli, N.; Galtier, S.; DiBraccio, G.; Halekas, J.; Published by: \apj      Published on: sep YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac0af5 Evolution of Large-amplitude Alfv\ en Waves and Generation of Switchbacks in the Expanding Solar Wind Motivated by recent Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations of switchbacks (abrupt, large-amplitude reversals in the radial magnetic field, which exhibit Alfv\ enic correlations), we examine the dynamics of large-amplitude Alfv\ en waves in the expanding solar wind. We develop an analytic model that makes several predictions: switchbacks should preferentially occur in regions where the solar wind plasma has undergone a greater expansion, the switchback fraction at radii comparable to PSP should be an increasing function of ... Mallet, Alfred; Squire, Jonathan; Chandran, Benjamin; Bowen, Trevor; Bale, Stuart; Published by: \apj      Published on: sep YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac0c12 Characteristic Scales of Magnetic Switchback Patches Near the Sun and Their Possible Association With Solar Supergranulation and Granulation Parker Solar Probe (PSP) data recorded within a heliocentric radial distance of 0.3 au have revealed a magnetic field dominated by Alfv\ enic structures that undergo large local variations or even reversals of the radial magnetic field. They are called magnetic switchbacks, they are consistent with folds in magnetic field lines within a same magnetic sector and are associated with velocity spikes during an otherwise calmer background. They are thought to originate either in the low solar atmosphere through magnetic reconnect ... Fargette, Na; Lavraud, Benoit; Rouillard, Alexis; eville, Victor; de Wit, Thierry; Froment, Clara; Halekas, Jasper; Phan, Tai; Malaspina, David; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Louarn, Philippe; Case, Anthony; Korreck, Kelly; Larson, Davin; Pulupa, Marc; Stevens, Michael; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Berthomier, Matthieu; Published by: \apj      Published on: oct YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1112 Exploring the Solar Wind from Its Source on the Corona into the Inner Heliosphere during the First Solar Orbiter-Parker Solar Probe Quadrature This Letter addresses the first Solar Orbiter (SO)-Parker Solar Probe (PSP) quadrature, occurring on 2021 January 18 to investigate the evolution of solar wind from the extended corona to the inner heliosphere. Assuming ballistic propagation, the same plasma volume observed remotely in the corona at altitudes between 3.5 and 6.3 solar radii above the solar limb with the Metis coronagraph on SO can be tracked to PSP, orbiting at 0.1 au, thus allowing the local properties of the solar wind to be linked to the coronal source re ... Telloni, Daniele; Andretta, Vincenzo; Antonucci, Ester; Bemporad, Alessandro; Capuano, Giuseppe; Fineschi, Silvano; Giordano, Silvio; Habbal, Shadia; Perrone, Denise; Pinto, Rui; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Spadaro, Daniele; Susino, Roberto; Woodham, Lloyd; Zank, Gary; Romoli, Marco; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Auchère, Fr\; Bruno, Roberto; Capobianco, Gerardo; Case, Anthony; Casini, Chiara; Casti, Marta; Chioetto, Paolo; Corso, Alain; Da Deppo, Vania; De Leo, Yara; de Wit, Thierry; Frassati, Federica; Frassetto, Fabio; Goetz, Keith; Guglielmino, Salvo; Harvey, Peter; Heinzel, Petr; Jerse, Giovanna; Korreck, Kelly; Landini, Federico; Larson, Davin; Liberatore, Alessandro; Livi, Roberto; MacDowall, Robert; Magli, Enrico; Malaspina, David; Massone, Giuseppe; Messerotti, Mauro; Moses, John; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; o, Giuseppe; Panasenco, Olga; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Pelizzo, Maria; Pulupa, Marc; Reale, Fabio; Romano, Paolo; Sasso, Clementina; Schühle, Udo; Stangalini, Marco; Stevens, Michael; Strachan, Leonard; Straus, Thomas; Teriaca, Luca; Uslenghi, Michela; Velli, Marco; Verscharen, Daniel; Volpicelli, Cosimo; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Zangrilli, Luca; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Zuppella, Paola; Published by: \apjl      Published on: oct YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac282f Alfv\ en Speed Transition Zone in the Solar Corona The Alfv\ en radius, r$_A$, at which solar wind radial outflow speed exceeds the Alfv\ en wave speed, is an important parameter in understanding solar wind evolution in the extended corona. The mean solar wind angular momentum scales with $r_A^2$ in the axisymmetric steady-state approximation, so the Alfv\ en radius is often referenced in the study of solar wind corotation and dynamics. Alfv\ en wave speed is derived from the magnetic-field intensity and plasma mass density. In the inner coronal regions, these parameters wer ... Wexler, David; Stevens, Michael; Case, Anthony; Song, Paul; Published by: \apjl      Published on: oct YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac25fa Evolution of Switchbacks in the Inner Heliosphere We analyze magnetic field data from the first six encounters of Parker Solar Probe, three Helios fast streams and two Ulysses south polar passes covering heliocentric distances 0.1 \ensuremath\lesssim R \ensuremath\lesssim 3 au. We use this data set to statistically determine the evolution of switchbacks of different periods and amplitudes with distance from the Sun. We compare the radial evolution of magnetic field variances with that of the mean square amplitudes of switchbacks, and quantify the radial evolution of the cum ... Tenerani, Anna; Sioulas, Nikos; Matteini, Lorenzo; Panasenco, Olga; Shi, Chen; Velli, Marco; Published by: \apjl      Published on: oct YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac2606 Ambipolar Electric Field and Potential in the Solar Wind Estimated from Electron Velocity Distribution Functions The solar wind escapes from the solar corona and is accelerated, over a short distance, to its terminal velocity. The energy balance associated with this acceleration remains poorly understood. To quantify the global electrostatic contribution to the solar wind dynamics, we empirically estimate the ambipolar electric field (E$_\ensuremath\parallel$) and potential (\ensuremath\Phi$_r,\ensuremath\infty$). We analyze electron velocity distribution functions (VDFs) measured in the near-Sun solar wind between 20.3 R$_S$ and 85.3 ... Ber\vci\vc, Laura; c, Milan; Halekas, Jasper; Landi, Simone; Owen, Christopher; Verscharen, Daniel; Larson, Davin; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Badman, Samuel; Bale, Stuart.; Case, Anthony; Goetz, Keith; Harvey, Peter; Kasper, Justin; Korreck, Kelly; Livi, Roberto; MacDowall, Robert; Malaspina, David; Pulupa, Marc; Stevens, Michael; Published by: \apj      Published on: nov YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1f1c Macro Magnetic Holes Caused by Ripples in Heliospheric Current Sheet from Coordinated Imaging and Parker Solar Probe Observations Macro magnetic holes (MMHs), which are significant magnetic field decreases in the solar wind lasting tens of minutes, were found during the first four orbits of the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). We performed a detailed analysis of the 2020 January 30 event and found the possible cause of the MMH using coordinated remote sensing observations from STEREO A and PSP in situ measurements. The results indicate that an MMH represents a brief encounter with the rippled heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Out of the data from the first fo ... Chen, Chong; Liu, Ying; Hu, Huidong; Published by: \apj      Published on: nov YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1b2b Impact of Switchbacks on Turbulent Cascade and Energy Transfer Rate in the Inner Heliosphere Recent Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations of inner heliospheric plasma have shown an abundant presence of Alfv\ enic polarity reversal of the magnetic field, known as switchbacks. While their origin is still debated, their role in driving the solar wind turbulence has been suggested through analysis of the spectral properties of magnetic fluctuations. Here, we provide a complementary assessment of their role in the turbulent cascade. The validation of the third-order linear scaling of velocity and magnetic fluctuation ... andez, Carlos; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Bandyopadhyay, Riddhi; Chasapis, Alexandros; asconez, Christian; Marino, Raffaele; Pezzi, Oreste; Published by: \apjl      Published on: nov YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac36d1 Global Distribution of the Solar Wind Speed Reconstructed from Improved Tomographic Analysis of Interplanetary Scintillation Observations between 1985 and 2019 Computer-assisted tomography (CAT) for interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations enables the determination of the global distribution of solar wind speed. We compared solar wind speeds derived from the CAT analysis of IPS observations between 1985 and 2019 with in situ observations conducted by the near-Earth and Ulysses spacecraft. From this comparison, we found that solar wind speeds from the IPS observations for 2009-2019 were systematically higher than the in situ observations, whereas those for the period until 20 ... Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken; Kojima, Masayoshi; Iwai, Kazumasa; Published by: \apj      Published on: nov YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1862 Solar Origin of Compressive Alfv\ enic Spikes/Kinks as Observed by Parker Solar Probe The solar wind is found by the Parker Solar Probe to be abundant with Alfv\ enic velocity spikes and magnetic field kinks. Temperature enhancement is another remarkable feature associated with the Alfv\ enic spikes. How the prototype of these coincident phenomena is generated intermittently in the source region is an important and wide-ranging subject. Here we propose a new model introducing guide-field discontinuity into the interchange magnetic reconnection between open funnels and closed loops with different magnetic heli ... He, Jiansen; Zhu, Xingyu; Yang, Liping; Hou, Chuanpeng; Duan, Die; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ying; Published by: \apjl      Published on: may YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abf83d Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes with Field-aligned Flows via the PSP In Situ Observations Magnetic flux rope, formed by the helical magnetic field lines, can sometimes maintain its shape while carrying significant plasma flow that is aligned with the local magnetic field. We report the existence of such structures and static flux ropes by applying the Grad-Shafranov-based algorithm to the Parker Solar Probe in situ measurements in the first five encounters. These structures are detected at heliocentric distances, ranging from 0.13 to 0.66 au, in a 4-month time period. We find that flux ropes with field-aligned fl ... Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang; Zhao, Lingling; Kasper, Justin; Huang, Jia; Published by: \apj      Published on: jun YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abfd30 Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence in the Inner Heliosphere at Kinetic Scales: PSP Observations The anisotropy of solar wind turbulence is a critical issue in understanding the physics of energy transfer between scales and energy conversion between fields and particles in the heliosphere. Using the measurement of Parker Solar Probe (PSP), we present an observation of the anisotropy at kinetic scales in the slow, Alfv\ enic, solar wind in the inner heliosphere. The magnetic compressibility behaves as expected for kinetic Alfv\ enic turbulence below the ion scale. A steepened transition range is found between the inertia ... Duan, Die; He, Jiansen; Bowen, Trevor; Woodham, Lloyd; Wang, Tieyan; Chen, Christopher; Mallet, Alfred; Bale, Stuart; Published by: \apjl      Published on: jul YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac07ac Switchback Boundary Dissipation and Relative Age We examine Parker Solar Probe (PSP) magnetic field and plasma observations during its first encounter with the Sun in early 2018 November. During this perihelion time, impulsive reversals in the magnetic field, called switchbacks, were found in the data set characterized by a quick rotation in B along with a simultaneous increase in solar wind flow. In this work, we examine the structure and morphology of 920 switchback boundaries as PSP enters and exits the structures, specifically looking for evidence of boundary degra ... Farrell, W.~M.; Rasca, A.~P.; MacDowall, R.~J.; Gruesbeck, J.~R.; Bale, S.~D.; Kasper, J.~C.; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac005b The Sunward Electron Deficit: A Telltale Sign of the Sun s Electric Potential As the Parker Solar Probe explores new regions of the inner heliosphere, it travels ever deeper into the electric potential of the Sun. In the near-Sun environment, a new feature of the electron distribution emerges, in the form of a deficit in the sunward suprathermal population. The lower boundary of this deficit forms a cutoff in phase space, at an energy determined by the electric potential drop between the observation point and the outer heliosphere. We explore the characteristics of the sunward deficit and the associat ... Halekas, J.~S.; Ber\vci\vc, L.; Whittlesey, P.; Larson, D.~E.; Livi, R.; Berthomier, M.; Kasper, J.~C.; Case, A.~W.; Stevens, M.~L.; Bale, S.~D.; MacDowall, R.~J.; Pulupa, M.~P.; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac096e General Exact Law of Compressible Isentropic Magnetohydrodynamic Flows: Theory and Spacecraft Observations in the Solar Wind Various forms of exact laws governing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence have been derived either in the incompressibility limit, or for isothermal compressible flows. Here we propose a more general method that allows us to obtain such laws for any turbulent isentropic flow (i.e., constant entropy). We demonstrate that the known MHD exact laws (incompressible and isothermal) and the new (polytropic) one can be obtained as specific cases of the general law when the corresponding closure equation is stated. We also recover a ... Simon, P.; Sahraoui, F.; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac0337 Turbulent Generation of Magnetic Switchbacks in the Alfv\ enic Solar Wind One of the most important early results from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) is the ubiquitous presence of magnetic switchbacks, whose origin is under debate. Using a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of the equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics from the corona to 40 solar radii, we investigate whether magnetic switchbacks emerge from granulation-driven Alfv\ en waves and turbulence in the solar wind. The simulated solar wind is an Alfv\ enic slow-solar- wind stream with a radial profile consistent with var ... Shoda, Munehito; Chandran, Benjamin; Cranmer, Steven; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abfdbc Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic Perturbations in the Radial-field Solar Wind from Parker Solar Probe Observations We report analysis of sub-Alfv\ enic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations in the low-\ensuremath\beta radial-field solar wind employing the Parker Solar Probe spacecraft data from 2018 October 31 to November 12. We calculate wavevectors using the singular value decomposition method and separate MHD perturbations into three eigenmodes (Alfv\ en, fast, and slow modes) to explore the properties of sub-Alfv\ enic perturbations and the role of compressible perturbations in solar wind heating. The MHD perturbations show a high ... Zhao, S.~Q.; Yan, Huirong; Liu, Terry; Liu, Mingzhe; Shi, Mijie; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac2ffe A Solar Source of Alfv\ enic Magnetic Field Switchbacks: In Situ Remnants of Magnetic Funnels on Supergranulation Scales One of the striking observations from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft is the prevalence in the inner heliosphere of large amplitude, Alfv\ enic magnetic field reversals termed switchbacks. These $\delta B_R/B\sim \mathcal O (1$ ) fluctuations occur over a range of timescales and in patches separated by intervals of quiet, radial magnetic field. We use measurements from PSP to demonstrate that patches of switchbacks are localized within the extensions of plasma structures originating at the base of the corona. These ... Bale, S.~D.; Horbury, T.~S.; Velli, M.; Desai, M.~I.; Halekas, J.~S.; McManus, M.~D.; Panasenco, O.; Badman, S.~T.; Bowen, T.~A.; Chandran, B.~D.~G.; Drake, J.~F.; Kasper, J.~C.; Laker, R.; Mallet, A.; Matteini, L.; Phan, T.~D.; Raouafi, N.~E.; Squire, J.; Woodham, L.~D.; Woolley, T.; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac2d8c Domains of Magnetic Pressure Balance in Parker Solar Probe Observations of the Solar Wind The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft is performing the first in situ exploration of the solar wind within 0.2 au of the Sun. Initial observations confirmed the Alfv\ enic nature of aligned fluctuations of the magnetic field B and velocity V in solar wind plasma close to the Sun, in domains of nearly constant magnetic field magnitude \ensuremath\mid B \ensuremath\mid, i.e., approximate magnetic pressure balance. Such domains are interrupted by particularly strong fluctuations, including but not limited to radial field (pol ... Ruffolo, David; Ngampoopun, Nawin; Bhora, Yash; Thepthong, Panisara; Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Matthaeus, William; Chhiber, Rohit; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac2ee3 Large-scale Structure and Turbulence Transport in the Inner Solar Wind: Comparison of Parker Solar Probe s First Five Orbits with a Global 3D Reynolds-averaged MHD Model Simulation results from a global magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona and solar wind are compared with Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations during its first five orbits. The fully three- dimensional model is based on Reynolds-averaged mean-flow equations coupled with turbulence-transport equations. The model includes the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, turbulent Reynolds stresses, and heating of protons and electrons via a turbulent cascade. Turbulence-transport equations for average turbul ... Chhiber, Rohit; Usmanov, Arcadi; Matthaeus, William; Goldstein, Melvyn; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1ac7 Internal Structure of the 2019 April 2 CME We present the first analysis of internal coronal mass ejection (CME) structure observed very close to the Sun by the Wide-field Imager for Solar PRobe (WISPR) instrument on board the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). The transient studied here is a CME observed during PSP s second perihelion passage on 2019 April 2, when PSP was only 40 R $_\ensuremath\odot$ from the Sun. The CME was also well observed from 1 au by the STEREO-A spacecraft, which tracks the event all the way from the Sun to 1 au. However, PSP/WISPR observes internal ... Wood, Brian; Braga, Carlos; Vourlidas, Angelos; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac2aab MHD and Ion Kinetic Waves in Field-aligned Flows Observed by Parker Solar Probe Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observed predominately Alfv\ enic fluctuations in the solar wind near the Sun where the magnetic field tends to be radially aligned. In this paper, two magnetic- field-aligned solar wind flow intervals during PSP s first two orbits are analyzed. Observations of these intervals indicate strong signatures of parallel/antiparallel-propagating waves. We utilize multiple analysis techniques to extract the properties of the observed waves in both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and kinetic scales. At the MHD sca ... Zhao, L.; Zank, G.~P.; He, J.~S.; Telloni, D.; Adhikari, L.; Nakanotani, M.; Kasper, J.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac28fb Daily Variations of Plasma Density in the Solar Streamer Belt Improved space weather diagnostics depend critically on improving our understanding of the evolution of the slow solar wind in the streamer belts near the Sun. Recent innovations in tomography techniques are opening a new window on this complex environment. In this work, a new time-dependent technique is applied to COR2A/Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory observations from a period near solar minimum (2018 November 11) for heliocentric distances of 4-8 R $_\ensuremath\odot$. For the first time, we find density variation ... Morgan, Huw; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac1799 A Provably Positive, Divergence-free Constrained Transport Scheme for the Simulation of Solar Wind In this paper, we present a provably positive, divergence-free constrained transport (CT) scheme to simulate the steady-state solar wind ambient with the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics numerical model. The positivity can be lost in two ways: one way is in the reconstruction process, and the other is in the updating process when the variables are advanced to the next time step. We adopt a self-adjusting strategy to bring the density and pressure into the permitted range in the reconstruction process, and use modified ... Zhang, Man; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Xiaojing; Yang, Liping; Published by: \apjs      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ac1e29 Geometry of Magnetic Fluctuations near the Sun from the Parker Solar Probe Solar wind magnetic fluctuations exhibit anisotropy due to the presence of a mean magnetic field in the form of the Parker spiral. Close to the Sun, direct measurements were not available until the recently launched Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission. The nature of the anisotropy and geometry of the magnetic fluctuations play a fundamental role in dissipation processes and in the transport of energetic particles in space. Using PSP data, we present measurements of the geometry and anisotropy of the inner heliosphere magnetic f ... Bandyopadhyay, R.; McComas, D.~J.; Published by: \apj      Published on: dec YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac3486 Near-Sun Switchback Boundaries: Dissipation with Solar Distance The most surprising result from the first solar encounters by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) is the large amount of brief magnetic field reversals often referred to as switchbacks. Switchbacks have previously been observed further downstream in the solar wind by spacecraft such as Helios 2 at 62 R$_s$ from the Sun. However, these observations lack a distinct proton temperature increase detected inside switchbacks by PSP, implying that they are evolving over time to eventually reach a pressure balance at the switchback boundari ... Rasca, Anthony; Farrell, William; MacDowall, Robert; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac079f Characteristics of Interplanetary Discontinuities in the Inner Heliosphere Revealed by Parker Solar Probe We present a statistical analysis for the characteristics and spatial evolution of the interplanetary discontinuities (IDs) in the solar wind, from 0.13-0.9 au, by using the Parker Solar Probe measurements on Orbits 4 and 5. We collected 3948 IDs, including 2511 rotational discontinuities (RDs) and 557 tangential discontinuities (TDs), with the remnant unidentified. The statistical results show that (1) the ID occurrence rate decreases from 200 events per day at 0.13 au to 1 event per day at 0.9 au, following a spatial scali ... Liu, Y.~Y.; Fu, H.~S.; Cao, J.~B.; Liu, C.~M.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Z.~Z.; Xu, Y.; Bale, S.~D.; Kasper, J.~C.; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac06a1 Assessing the Role of Interchange Reconnection in Forming Switchbacks Abrupt deflections of the magnetic field in the solar wind, so called switchbacks, are frequently observed by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) during its first two orbits and are believed to play an important role in unveiling the nature of solar corona heating and solar wind acceleration in the inner heliosphere. Many attempts were made recently to understand the nature of switchbacks. However, the origin, propagation, and evolution of switchbacks are still under debate. In this study, we attempt to use the linear theory of ... Liang, H.; Zank, G.~P.; Nakanotani, M.; Zhao, L.; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac0a73 Evolution of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection Complexity: A Numerical Study through a Swarm of Simulated Spacecraft In-situ measurements carried out by spacecraft in radial alignment are critical to advance our knowledge on the evolutionary behavior of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their magnetic structures during propagation through interplanetary space. Yet, the scarcity of radially aligned CME crossings restricts investigations on the evolution of CME magnetic structures to a few case studies, preventing a comprehensive understanding of CME complexity changes during propagation. In this Letter, we perform numerical simulations of C ... Scolini, Camilla; Winslow, Reka; Lugaz, No\; Poedts, Stefaan; Published by: \apjl      Published on: aug YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac0d58 Large Amplitude Switchback Turbulence: Possible Magnetic Velocity Alignment Structures Switchbacks are widely acknowledged phenomena observed by the Parker Solar Probe and appear to occur in patches. Previous studies focused on the fluctuations at the magnetic reversals. However, the nature of the fluctuations inside the switchbacks remains unknown. Here we utilize the magnetic field data and plasma data measured by the Parker Solar Probe in the first four encounters. We investigate the fluctuations in the switchback intervals of 100 s with $B_R 0$ at every instant and compare them to the fluctuations in the n ... Wu, Honghong; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Xin; Yang, Liping; Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 06/2021 YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abec6c A Focused Transport-based Kinetic Fractional Diffusion-advection Equation for Energetic Particle Trapping and Reconnection-related Acceleration by Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Solar Wind Analysis of energetic particle inner heliospheric spacecraft data increasingly suggests the existence of anomalous diffusion phenomena that should be addressed to achieve a better understanding of energetic particle transport and acceleration in the expanding solar wind medium. Related to this is fast-growing observational evidence supporting the long-standing prediction from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory and simulations of the presence of an inner heliospheric, dominant quasi-two-dimensional MHD turbulence component that ... le Roux, J.; Zank, G.; Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 06/2021 YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abf3c6 Turbulent Proton Heating Rate in the Solar Wind from 545 R Various remote sensing observations have been used so far to probe the turbulent properties of the solar wind. Using the recently reported density modulation indices that are derived using angular broadening observations of Crab Nebula during 19522013, we measured the solar wind proton heating using the kinetic Alfvn wave dispersion equation. The estimated heating rates vary from 1.58 1014 to 1.01 108 erg cm3 s1 in the heliocentric distance range of 545 R. Further, we found that he ... Raja, Sasikumar; Subramanian, Prasad; Ingale, Madhusudan; Ramesh, R.; Maksimovic, Milan; Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 06/2021 YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abfcd1

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