# PSP Bibliography

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## Found 246 entries in the Bibliography.

### Showing entries from 1 through 50

 2022 On the utility of flux rope models for CME magnetic structure below 30 R$_\ensuremath\odot$ We present a comprehensive analysis of the three-dimensional magnetic flux rope structure generated during the Lynch et al. (2019, ApJ 880:97) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a global-scale, 360 \textdegree -wide streamer blowout coronal mass ejection (CME) eruption. We create both fixed and moving synthetic spacecraft to generate time series of the MHD variables through different regions of the flux rope CME. Our moving spacecraft trajectories are derived from the spatial coordinates of Parker Solar Probe s past enc ... Lynch, Benjamin; Al-Haddad, Nada; Yu, Wenyuan; Palmerio, Erika; Lugaz, No\; Published by: Advances in Space Research      Published on: sep YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2022.05.004 Parker Solar Probe Observations of Near-f $_Ce$ Harmonic Emissions in the Near-Sun Solar Wind and Their Dependence on the Magnetic Field Direction Wave emissions at frequencies near electron gyrofrequency harmonics are observed at small heliocentric distances below about 40 R $_\ensuremath\odot$ and are known to occur in regions with quiescent magnetic fields. We show the close connection of these waves to the large-scale properties of the magnetic field. Near electron gyrofrequency harmonic emissions occur only when the ambient magnetic field points to a narrow range of directions bounded by polar and azimuthal angular ranges in the RTN coordinate system of correspond ... Tigik, Sabrina; Vaivads, Andris; Malaspina, David; Bale, Stuart; Published by: \apj      Published on: sep YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac8473 Direct First Parker Solar Probe Observation of the Interaction of Two Successive Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections in 2020 November We investigate the effects of the evolutionary processes in the internal magnetic structure of two interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) detected in situ between 2020 November 29 and December 1 by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). The sources of the ICMEs were observed remotely at the Sun in EUV and subsequently tracked to their coronal counterparts in white light. This period is of particular interest to the community as it has been identified as the first widespread solar energetic particle event of solar cycle 25. The ... Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Alzate, Nathalia; Cremades, Hebe; ia, Laura; Santos, Luiz; Narock, Ayris; Xie, Hong; Szabo, Adam; Palmerio, Erika; Krupar, Vratislav; Pulupa, Marc; Lario, David; Stevens, Michael; Wilson, Lynn; Kwon, Ryun-Young; Mays, Leila; St. Cyr, Chris; Hess, Phillip; Reeves, Katharine; Seaton, Daniel; Niembro, Tatiana; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Published by: \apj      Published on: may YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac590b CMEs and SEPs During November-December 2020: A Challenge for Real-Time Space Weather Forecasting Predictions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) are a central issue in space weather forecasting. In recent years, interest in space weather predictions has expanded to include impacts at other planets beyond Earth as well as spacecraft scattered throughout the heliosphere. In this sense, the scope of space weather science now encompasses the whole heliospheric system, and multipoint measurements of solar transients can provide useful insights and validations for prediction models. In this w ... Palmerio, Erika; Lee, Christina; Mays, Leila; Luhmann, Janet; Lario, David; anchez-Cano, Beatriz; Richardson, Ian; Vainio, Rami; Stevens, Michael; Cohen, Christina; Steinvall, Konrad; Möstl, Christian; Weiss, Andreas; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Li, Yan; Larson, Davin; Heyner, Daniel; Bale, Stuart; Galvin, Antoinette; Holmström, Mats; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Maksimovic, Milan; Mitrofanov, Igor; Published by: Space Weather      Published on: may YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1029/2021SW002993 The incompressible energy cascade rate in anisotropic solar wind turbulence Context. The presence of a magnetic guide field induces several types of anisotropy in solar wind turbulence. The energy cascade rate between scales in the inertial range depends strongly on the direction of this magnetic guide field, splitting the energy cascade according to the parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to magnetic guide field. \ Aims: Using more than two years of Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations, the isotropy and anisotropy energy cascade rates are investigated. The variance and normalized fl ... es, Andr\; Sahraoui, F.; Huang, S.; Hadid, L.~Z.; Galtier, S.; Published by: \aap      Published on: may YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142994 Multi-scale image preprocessing and feature tracking for remote CME characterization Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) influence the interplanetary environment over vast distances in the solar system by injecting huge clouds of fast solar plasma and energetic particles (SEPs). A number of fundamental questions remain about how SEPs are produced, but current understanding points to CME-driven shocks and compressions in the solar corona. At the same time, unprecedented remote and in situ (Parker Solar Probe, Solar Orbiter) solar observations are becoming available to constrain existing theories. Here we present a ... Stepanyuk, Oleg; Kozarev, Kamen; Nedal, Mohamed; Published by: Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate      Published on: may YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2022020 Eruption and Interplanetary Evolution of a Stealthy Streamer-Blowout CME Observed by PSP at \ensuremath\sim0.5 AU Streamer-blowout coronal mass ejections (SBO-CMEs) are the dominant CME population during solar minimum. Although they are typically slow and lack clear low-coronal signatures, they can cause geomagnetic storms. With the aid of extrapolated coronal fields and remote observations of the off-limb low corona, we study the initiation of an SBO-CME preceded by consecutive CME eruptions consistent with a multi-stage sympathetic breakout scenario. From inner-heliospheric Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations, it is evident that the ... Pal, Sanchita; Lynch, Benjamin; Good, Simon; Palmerio, Erika; Asvestari, Eleanna; Pomoell, Jens; Stevens, Michael; Kilpua, Emilia; Published by: Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences      Published on: may YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3389/fspas.2022.903676 Sudden depletion of Alfv\ enic turbulence in the rarefaction region of corotating solar wind high-speed streams at 1 AU: Possible solar origin? A canonical description of a corotating solar wind high-speed stream in terms of velocity profile would indicate three main regions: a stream interface or corotating interaction region characterized by a rapid increase in flow speed and by compressive phenomena that are due to dynamical interaction between the fast wind flow and the slower ambient plasma; a fast wind plateau characterized by weak compressive phenomena and large-amplitude fluctuations with a dominant Alfv\ enic character; and a rarefaction region characterize ... Carnevale, G.; Bruno, R.; Marino, R.; Pietropaolo, E.; Raines, J.~M.; Published by: \aap      Published on: may YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202040006 Intermittency in the Expanding Solar Wind: Observations from Parker Solar Probe (0.16 au), Helios 1 (0.3-1 au), and Voyager 1 (1-10 au) We examine statistics of magnetic-field vector components to explore how intermittency evolves from near-Sun plasma to radial distances as large as 10 au. Statistics entering the analysis include autocorrelation, magnetic structure functions of the order of n (SF$_ n$), and scale-dependent kurtosis (SDK), each grouped in ranges of heliocentric distance. The Goddard Space Flight Center Space Physics Data Facility provides magnetic-field measurements for resolutions of 6.8 ms for Parker Solar Probe, 6 s for Helios, and 1.92 s ... Cuesta, Manuel; Parashar, Tulasi; Chhiber, Rohit; Matthaeus, William; Published by: \apjs      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ac45fa Core Electron Heating by Triggered Ion Acoustic Waves in the Solar Wind Perihelion passes on Parker Solar Probe orbits 6-9 have been studied to show that solar wind core electrons emerged from 15 solar radii with a temperature of 55 \ensuremath\pm 5 eV, independent of the solar wind speed, which varied from 300 to 800 km s$^-1$. After leaving 15 solar radii and in the absence of triggered ion acoustic waves at greater distances, the core electron temperature varied with radial distance, R, in solar radii, as 1900R $^-4/3$ eV because of cooling produced by the adiabatic expansion. The coefficient ... Mozer, F.~S.; Bale, S.~D.; Cattell, C.~A.; Halekas, J.; Vasko, I.~Y.; Verniero, J.~L.; Kellogg, P.~J.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac5520 Statistical Analysis of Intermittency and its Association with Proton Heating in the Near-Sun Environment We use data from the first six encounters of the Parker Solar Probe and employ the partial variance of increments (PVI) method to study the statistical properties of coherent structures in the inner heliosphere with the aim of exploring physical connections between magnetic field intermittency and observable consequences such as plasma heating and turbulence dissipation. Our results support proton heating localized in the vicinity of, and strongly correlated with, magnetic structures characterized by PVI \ensuremath\geq 1. W ... Sioulas, Nikos; Velli, Marco; Chhiber, Rohit; Vlahos, Loukas; Matthaeus, William; Bandyopadhyay, Riddhi; Cuesta, Manuel; Shi, Chen; Bowen, Trevor; Qudsi, Ramiz; Stevens, Michael; Bale, Stuart; Published by: \apj      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac4fc1 Suprathermal Ion Energy Spectra and Anisotropies near the Heliospheric Current Sheet Crossing Observed by the Parker Solar Probe during Encounter 7 We present observations of \ensuremath\gtrsim10-100 keV nucleon$^-1$ suprathermal (ST) H, He, O, and Fe ions associated with crossings of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) at radial distances of <0.1 au from the Sun. Our key findings are as follows: (1) very few heavy ions are detected during the first full crossing, the heavy-ion intensities are reduced during the second partial crossing and peak just after the second crossing; (2) ion arrival times exhibit no velocity dispersion; (3) He pitch-angle distributions track t ... Desai, M.~I.; Mitchell, D.~G.; McComas, D.~J.; Drake, J.~F.; Phan, T.; Szalay, J.~R.; Roelof, E.~C.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M.~E.; Christian, E.~R.; Schwadron, N.~A.; McNutt, R.~L.; Wiedenbeck, M.~E.; Joyce, C.; Cohen, C.~M.~S.; Davis, A.~J.; Krimigis, S.~M.; Leske, R.~A.; Matthaeus, W.~H.; Malandraki, O.; Mewaldt, R.~A.; Labrador, A.; Stone, E.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Verniero, J.; Rahmati, A.; Whittlesey, P.; Livi, R.; Larson, D.; Pulupa, M.; MacDowall, R.~J.; Niehof, J.~T.; Kasper, J.~C.; Horbury, T.~S.; Published by: \apj      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac4961 Flux rope and dynamics of the heliospheric current sheet. Study of the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter conjunction of June 2020 Context. Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe jointly observed the solar wind for the first time in June 2020, capturing data from very different solar wind streams: calm, Alfv\ enic wind and also highly dynamic large-scale structures. Context. Our aim is to understand the origin and characteristics of the highly dynamic solar wind observed by the two probes, particularly in the vicinity of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). \ Methods: We analyzed the plasma data obtained by Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter in situ du ... Réville, V.; Fargette, N.; Rouillard, A.~P.; Lavraud, B.; Velli, M.; Strugarek, A.; Parenti, S.; Brun, A.~S.; Shi, C.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Poirier, N.; Pinto, R.~F.; Louarn, P.; Fedorov, A.; Owen, C.~J.; enot, V.; Horbury, T.~S.; Laker, R.; Brien, H.; Angelini, V.; Fauchon-Jones, E.; Kasper, J.~C.; Published by: \aap      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142381 Analysis of the Distribution, Rotation and Scale Characteristics of Solar Wind Switchbacks: Comparison between the First and Second Encounters of Parker Solar Probe The S-shaped magnetic structure in the solar wind formed by the twisting of magnetic field lines is called a switchback, whose main characteristics are the reversal of the magnetic field and the significant increase in the solar wind radial velocity. We identify 242 switchbacks during the first two encounters of Parker Solar Probe. Statistics methods are applied to analyze the distribution and the rotation angle and direction of the magnetic field rotation of the switchbacks. The diameter of switchbacks is estimated with a m ... Meng, Ming-Ming; Liu, Ying; Chen, Chong; Wang, Rui; Published by: Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/ac49e4 In Situ Measurement of the Energy Fraction in Suprathermal and Energetic Particles at ACE, Wind, and PSP Interplanetary Shocks The acceleration of charged particles by interplanetary shocks (IPs) can drain a nonnegligible fraction of the plasma pressure. In this study, we have selected 17 IPs observed in situ at 1 au by the Advanced Composition Explorer and the Wind spacecraft, and 1 shock at 0.8 au observed by Parker Solar Probe. We have calculated the time-dependent partial pressure of suprathermal and energetic particles (smaller and greater than 50 keV for protons and 30 keV for electrons, respectively) in both the upstream and downstream region ... David, Liam; Fraschetti, Federico; Giacalone, Joe; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Berger, Lars; Lario, David; Published by: \apj      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac54af Energy Transfer, Discontinuities, and Heating in the Inner Heliosphere Measured with a Weak and Local Formulation of the Politano-Pouquet Law The solar wind is a highly turbulent plasma for which the mean rate of energy transfer ɛ has been measured for a long time using the Politano-Pouquet (PP98) exact law. However, this law assumes statistical homogeneity that can be violated by the presence of discontinuities. Here, we introduce a new method based on the inertial dissipation $D _I^{\sigma }$ whose analytical form is derived from incompressible magnetohydrodynamics; it can be considered as a weak and local (in space) formulation of the PP98 law whose expressio ... David, V.; Galtier, S.; Sahraoui, F.; Hadid, L.~Z.; Published by: \apj      Published on: mar YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac524b Features of Magnetic Field Switchbacks in Relation to the Local-field Geometry of Large-amplitude Alfv\ enic Oscillations: Wind and PSP Observations In this Letter, we report observations of magnetic switchback (SB) features near 1 au using data from the Wind spacecraft. These features appear to be strikingly similar to the ones observed by the Parker Solar Probe mission closer to the Sun: namely, one- sided spikes (or enhancements) in the solar-wind bulk speed V that correlate/anticorrelate with the spikes seen in the radial- field component B $_ R$. In the solar-wind streams that we analyzed, these specific SB features near 1 au are associated with large-amplitude Alf ... Bourouaine, Sofiane; Perez, Jean; Raouafi, Nour; Chandran, Benjamin; Bale, Stuart; Velli, Marco; Published by: \apjl      Published on: jun YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac67d9 Radial Evolution of Thermal and Suprathermal Electron Populations in the Slow Solar Wind from 0.13 to 0.5 au: Parker Solar Probe Observations We develop and apply a bespoke fitting routine to a large volume of solar wind electron distribution data measured by Parker Solar Probe over its first five orbits, covering radial distances from 0.13 to 0.5 au. We characterize the radial evolution of the electron core, halo, and strahl populations in the slow solar wind during these orbits. The fractional densities of these three electron populations provide evidence for the growth of the combined suprathermal halo and strahl populations from 0.13 to 0.17 au. Moreover, the ... Abraham, Joel; Owen, Christopher; Verscharen, Daniel; Bakrania, Mayur; Stansby, David; Wicks, Robert; Nicolaou, Georgios; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Rueda, Jeffersson; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Ber\vci\vc, Laura; Published by: \apj      Published on: jun YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac6605 Constraining Global Coronal Models with Multiple Independent Observables Global coronal models seek to produce an accurate physical representation of the Sun s atmosphere that can be used, for example, to drive space-weather models. Assessing their accuracy is a complex task, and there are multiple observational pathways to provide constraints and tune model parameters. Here, we combine several such independent constraints, defining a model- agnostic framework for standardized comparison. We require models to predict the distribution of coronal holes at the photosphere, and neutral line topology ... Badman, Samuel; Brooks, David; Poirier, Nicolas; Warren, Harry; Petrie, Gordon; Rouillard, Alexis; Arge, Nick; Bale, Stuart; Agüero, Diego; Harra, Louise; Jones, Shaela; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Riley, Pete; Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco; Wallace, Samantha; Published by: \apj      Published on: jun YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac6610 Isotropization and Evolution of Energy-containing Eddies in Solar Wind Turbulence: Parker Solar Probe, Helios 1, ACE, WIND, and Voyager 1 We examine the radial evolution of correlation lengths perpendicular ( $\lambda _C^\perp$ ) and parallel ( $\lambda _C^\parallel$ ) to the magnetic-field direction, computed from solar wind magnetic-field data measured by Parker Solar Probe (PSP) during its first eight orbits, Helios 1, Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), WIND, and Voyager 1 spacecraft. Correlation lengths are grouped by an interval s alignment angle; the angle between the magnetic-field and solar wind velocity vectors (\ensuremath\Theta$_BV$). Parallel a ... Cuesta, Manuel; Chhiber, Rohit; Roy, Sohom; Goodwill, Joshua; Pecora, Francesco; Jarosik, Jake; Matthaeus, William; Parashar, Tulasi; Bandyopadhyay, Riddhi; Published by: \apjl      Published on: jun YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac73fd Growth of Outward Propagating Fast-magnetosonic/Whistler Waves in the Inner Heliosphere Observed by Parker Solar Probe The solar wind in the inner heliosphere has been observed by Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to exhibit abundant wave activities. The cyclotron wave modes responding to ions or electrons are among the most crucial wave components. However, their origin and evolution in the inner heliosphere close to the Sun remains a mystery. Specifically, it remains unknown whether it is an emitted signal from the solar atmosphere or an eigenmode growing locally in the heliosphere due to plasma instability. To address and resolve this controversy, ... He, Jiansen; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Xingyu; Duan, Die; Verscharen, Daniel; Zhao, Guoqing; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac6c8e The Dynamic Evolution of Solar Wind Streams Following Interchange Reconnection Interchange reconnection is thought to play an important role in determining the dynamics and material composition of the slow solar wind that originates from near coronal-hole boundaries. To explore the implications of this process we simulate the dynamic evolution of a solar wind stream along a newly-opened magnetic flux tube. The initial condition is composed of a piecewise continuous dynamic equilibrium in which the regions above and below the reconnection site are extracted from steady-state solutions along open and clo ... Scott, Roger; Bradshaw, Stephen; Linton, Mark; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7144 The preferential orientation of magnetic switchbacks and its implications for solar magnetic flux transport Context. Magnetic switchbacks in the solar wind are large deflections of the magnetic field vector, which often reverse their radial component, and are associated with a velocity spike consistent with their Alfv\ enic nature. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission revealed them to be a dominant feature of the near-Sun solar wind. Where and how they are formed remains unclear and subject to discussion. \ Aims: We investigate the orientation of the magnetic field deflections in switchbacks to determine if they are characterized ... Fargette, Na; Lavraud, Benoit; Rouillard, Alexis; eville, Victor; Bale, Stuart; Kasper, Justin; Published by: \aap      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202243537 Structure and fluctuations of a slow ICME sheath observed at 0.5 au by the Parker Solar Probe Context. Sheath regions ahead of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are compressed and turbulent global heliospheric structures. Their global and fine-scale structure are outstanding research problems, and only a few studies have been conducted on this topic closer to the Sun than 1 au. Comprehensive knowledge of the sheath structure and embedded fluctuations and of their evolution in interplanetary space is important for understanding their geoeffectiveness, their role in accelerating charged particles to high en ... Kilpua, E.~K.~J.; Good, S.~W.; Ala-Lahti, M.; Osmane, A.; Pal, S.; Soljento, J.~E.; Zhao, L.~L.; Bale, S.; Published by: \aap      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142191 On the properties of Alfv\ enic switchbacks in the expanding solar wind: Three-dimensional numerical simulations Switchbacks-abrupt reversals of the magnetic field within the solar wind-have been ubiquitously observed by Parker Solar Probe (PSP). Their origin, whether from processes near the solar surface or within the solar wind itself, remains under debate and likely has key implications for solar wind heating and acceleration. Here, using three-dimensional expanding box simulations, we examine the properties of switchbacks arising from the evolution of outwards-propagating Alfv\ en waves in the expanding solar wind in detail. Our go ... Johnston, Zade; Squire, Jonathan; Mallet, Alfred; Meyrand, Romain; Published by: Physics of Plasmas      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1063/5.0097983 Taylor Microscale and Effective Reynolds Number near the Sun from PSP The Taylor microscale is a fundamental length scale in turbulent fluids, representing the end of fluid properties and onset of dissipative processes. The Taylor microscale can also be used to evaluate the Reynolds number in classical turbulence theory. Although the solar wind is weakly collisional, it approximately behaves as a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid at scales larger than the kinetic scale. As a result, classical fluid turbulence theory and formalisms are often used to study turbulence in the MHD range. Therefore, a ... Phillips, C.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; McComas, D.~J.; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac713f Quasi-periodic Energy Release and Jets at the Base of Solar Coronal Plumes Coronal plumes are long, ray-like, open structures that have been considered as possible sources of the solar wind. Their origin in the largely unipolar coronal holes has long been a mystery. Earlier spectroscopic and imaging observations revealed blueshifted plasma and propagating disturbances (PDs) in plumes that are widely interpreted in terms of flows and/or propagating slow-mode waves, but these interpretations (flows versus waves) remain under debate. Recently we discovered an important clue about plume internal struct ... Kumar, Pankaj; Karpen, Judith; Uritsky, Vadim; Deforest, Craig; Raouafi, Nour; DeVore, Richard; Published by: \apj      Published on: jul YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac6c24 Parker Solar Probe detects solar radio bursts related with a behind-the-limb active region Context. The interpretation of solar radio bursts observed by Parker Solar Probe (PSP) in the encounter phase plays a key role in understanding intrinsic properties of the emission mechanism in the solar corona. Lower time-frequency resolution of the PSP receiver can be overcome by simultaneous ground-based observations using more advanced antennas and receivers. \ Aims: In this paper we present such observations for which the active active region 12 765, begetter of type III, J, and U solar bursts, was within sight of groun ... Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Bubnov, Igor; Koval, Artem; Yerin, Serge; Published by: \aap      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202141984 Multipoint Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed with Solar Orbiter, BepiColombo, Parker Solar Probe, Wind, and STEREO-A We report the result of the first search for multipoint in situ and imaging observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) starting with the first Solar Orbiter (SolO) data in 2020 April-2021 April. A data exploration analysis is performed including visualizations of the magnetic-field and plasma observations made by the five spacecraft SolO, BepiColombo, Parker Solar Probe (PSP), Wind, and STEREO-A, in connection with coronagraph and heliospheric imaging observations from STEREO-A/SECCHI and SOHO/LASCO. We id ... Möstl, Christian; Weiss, Andreas; Reiss, Martin; Amerstorfer, Tanja; Bailey, Rachel; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Bauer, Maike; Barnes, David; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; von Forstner, Johan; Davies, Emma; Heyner, Daniel; Horbury, Tim; Bale, Stuart; Published by: \apjl      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac42d0 Inertial-range Magnetic-fluctuation Anisotropy Observed from Parker Solar Probe s First Seven Orbits Solar wind turbulence is anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field. Anisotropy leads to ambiguity when interpreting in situ turbulence observations in the solar wind because an apparent change in the measurements could be due to either the change of intrinsic turbulence properties or to a simple change of the spacecraft sampling direction. We demonstrate the ambiguity using the spectral index and magnetic compressibility in the inertial range observed by the Parker Solar Probe during its first seven orbits ranging ... Zhao, L.; Zank, G.~P.; Adhikari, L.; Nakanotani, M.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac4415 Variable Ion Compositions of Solar Energetic Particle Events in the Inner Heliosphere: A Field Line Braiding Model with Compound Injections We propose a model for interpreting highly variable ion composition ratios in solar energetic particle (SEP) events recently observed by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) at 0.3-0.45 au. We use numerical simulations to calculate SEP propagation in a turbulent interplanetary magnetic field with a Kolmogorov power spectrum from large scales down to the gyration scale of energetic particles. We show that when the source regions of different species are offset by a distance comparable to the size of the source regions, the observed e ... Guo, Fan; Zhao, Lulu; Cohen, Christina; Giacalone, Joe; Leske, R.~A.; Wiedenbeck, M.~E.; Kahler, S.~W.; Li, Xiaocan; Zhang, Qile; Ho, George; Desai, Mihir; Published by: \apj      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac3233 Widespread 1-2 MeV Energetic Particles Associated with Slow and Narrow Coronal Mass Ejections: Parker Solar Probe and STEREO Measurements Suprathermal ions in the corona are thought to serve as seed particles for large gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with fast and wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A better understanding of the role of suprathermal particles as seed populations for SEP events can be made by using observations close to the Sun. We study a series of SEP events observed by the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (IS\ensuremath\odotIS) suite on board the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) from 2020 May 27 to June 2, during ... Zhuang, Bin; Lugaz, No\; Lario, David; Published by: \apj      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac3af2 Anomalous Cosmic-Ray Oxygen Observations into 0.1 au The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun instrument suite onboard NASA s Parker Solar Probe mission continues to measure solar energetic particles and cosmic rays closer to the Sun than ever before. Here, we present the first observations of cosmic rays into 0.1 au (21.5 solar radii), focusing specifically on oxygen from \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde2018.7 to \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde2021.2. Our energy spectra reveal an anomalous cosmic-ray-dominated profile that is comparable to that at 1 au, across multiple so ... Rankin, J.~S.; McComas, D.~J.; Leske, R.~A.; Christian, E.~R.; Cohen, C.~M.~S.; Cummings, A.~C.; Joyce, C.~J.; Labrador, A.~W.; Mewaldt, R.~A.; Schwadron, N.~A.; Stone, E.~C.; Strauss, R.~D.; Wiedenbeck, M.~E.; Published by: \apj      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac348f Parker Solar Probe Evidence for the Absence of Whistlers Close to the Sun to Scatter Strahl and to Regulate Heat Flux Using the Parker Solar Probe FIELDS bandpass-filter data and SWEAP electron data from Encounters 1 through 9, we show statistical properties of narrowband whistlers from \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde16 R $_s$ to \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde130 R $_s$, and compare wave occurrence to electron properties including beta, temperature anisotropy, and heat flux. Whistlers are very rarely observed inside \raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde28 R $_s$ (\raisebox-0.5ex\textasciitilde0.13 au). Outside 28 R $_s$, they occur within a narrow ... Cattell, C.; Breneman, A.; Dombeck, J.; Hanson, E.; Johnson, M.; Halekas, J.; Bale, S.~D.; de Wit, Dudok; Goetz, K.; Goodrich, K.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.; Case, T.; Kasper, J.~C.; Larson, D.; Stevens, M.; Whittlesey, P.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac4015 Strong Perpendicular Velocity-space Diffusion in Proton Beams Observed by Parker Solar Probe The SWEAP instrument suite on Parker Solar Probe (PSP) has detected numerous proton beams associated with coherent, circularly polarized, ion-scale waves observed by PSP s FIELDS instrument suite. Measurements during PSP Encounters 4-8 revealed pronounced complex shapes in the proton velocity distribution functions (VDFs), in which the tip of the beam undergoes strong perpendicular diffusion, resulting in VDF level contours that resemble a hammerhead. We refer to these proton beams, with their attendant hammerhead fe ... Verniero, J.~L.; Chandran, B.~D.~G.; Larson, D.~E.; Paulson, K.; Alterman, B.~L.; Badman, S.; Bale, S.~D.; Bonnell, J.~W.; Bowen, T.~A.; de Wit, Dudok; Kasper, J.~C.; Klein, K.~G.; Lichko, E.; Livi, R.; McManus, M.~D.; Rahmati, A.; Verscharen, D.; Walters, J.; Whittlesey, P.~L.; Published by: \apj      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac36d5 Simulation of Plasma Emission in Magnetized Plasmas The recent Parker Solar Probe observations of type III radio bursts show that the effects of the finite background magnetic field can be an important factor in the interpretation of data. In the present paper, the effects of the background magnetic field on the plasma-emission process, which is believed to be the main emission mechanism for solar coronal and interplanetary type III radio bursts, are investigated by means of the particle-in-cell simulation method. The effects of the ambient magnetic field are systematically s ... Lee, Sang-Yun; Yoon, Peter; Lee, Ensang; Tu, Weichao; Published by: \apj      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac32bb Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes and Their Properties Based on In Situ Measurements from the Parker Solar Probe We report small-scale magnetic flux ropes via the in situ measurements from the Parker Solar Probe during the first six encounters, and present additional analyses to supplement our prior work in Chen et al. These flux ropes are detected by the Grad-Shafranov-based algorithm, with their durations and scale sizes ranging from 10 s to \ensuremath\lesssim1 hr and from a few hundred kilometers to 10$^-3$ au, respectively. They include both static structures and those with significant field-aligned plasma flows. Most structures t ... Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang; Published by: \apj      Published on: jan YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac3487 Alpha-Proton Differential Flow of the Young Solar Wind: Parker Solar Probe Observations The velocity of alpha particles relative to protons can vary depending on the solar wind type and distance from the Sun. Measurements from the previous spacecraft provided the alpha-proton differential velocities down to 0.3 au. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) now enables insights into differential flows of the newly accelerated solar wind closer to the Sun for the first time. Here we study the difference between proton and alpha bulk velocities near PSP perihelia of encounters 3-7 when the core solar wind is in the field of vi ... Mostafavi, P.; Allen, R.~C.; McManus, M.~D.; Ho, G.~C.; Raouafi, N.~E.; Larson, D.~E.; Kasper, J.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Published by: \apjl      Published on: feb YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac51e1 An Improved Technique for Measuring Plasma Density to High Frequencies on the Parker Solar Probe The correlation between the plasma density measured in space and the surface potential of an electrically conducting satellite body with biased electric field detectors has been recognized and used to provide density proxies. However, for Parker Solar Probe, this correlation has not produced quantitative density estimates over extended periods of time because it depends on the energy-dependent exponential variation of the photoemission spectrum, the electron temperature, the ratio of the biased surface area to the conducting ... Mozer, F.~S.; Bale, S.~D.; Kellogg, P.~J.; Larson, D.; Livi, R.; Romeo, O.; Published by: \apj      Published on: feb YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac4f42 Modeling Ion Beams, Kinetic Instabilities, and Waves Observed by the Parker Solar Probe near Perihelia Recent in situ observations from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission in the inner heliosphere near perihelia show evidence of ion beams, temperature anisotropies, and kinetic wave activity, which are likely associated with kinetic heating and acceleration processes of the solar wind. In particular, the proton beams were detected by PSP/Solar Probe Analyzers-Ion (SPAN-I) and related magnetic fluctuation spectra associated with ion-scale waves were observed by the FIELDS instrument. We present the ion velocity distribution fu ... Ofman, Leon; Boardsen, Scott; Jian, Lan; Verniero, Jaye; Larson, Davin; Published by: \apj      Published on: feb YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac402c Double-power-law Feature of Energetic Particles Accelerated at Coronal Shocks Recent observations have shown that in many large solar energetic particle (SEP) events the event-integrated differential spectra resemble double power laws. We perform numerical modeling of particle acceleration at coronal shocks propagating through a streamer-like magnetic field by solving the Parker transport equation, including protons and heavier ions. We find that for all ion species the energy spectra integrated over the simulation domain can be described by a double power law, and the break energy depends on the ion ... Yu, Feiyu; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Liu, Wenlong; Jiang, Zelong; Chen, Yao; Giacalone, Joe; Published by: \apjl      Published on: feb YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac4cb3 The Stability of the Electron Strahl against the Oblique Fast-magnetosonic/Whistler Instability in the Inner Heliosphere We analyze the micro-kinetic stability of the electron strahl in the solar wind depending on heliocentric distance. The oblique fast- magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) instability has emerged in the literature as a key candidate mechanism for the effective scattering of the electron strahl into the electron halo population. Using data from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) and Helios, we compare the measured strahl properties with the analytical thresholds for the oblique FM/W instability in the low- and high-\ensuremath\beta $_\ensur ... Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Abraham, Joel; Verscharen, Daniel; Ber\vci\vc, Laura; Stansby, David; Nicolaou, Georgios; Owen, Christopher; Wicks, Robert; Fazakerley, Andrew; Rueda, Jeffersson; Bakrania, Mayur; Published by: \apjl Published on: feb YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac4dff Flux Rope Merging and the Structure of Switchbacks in the Solar Wind A major discovery of Parker Solar Probe (PSP) was the presence of large numbers of localized increases in the radial solar wind speed and associated sharp deflections of the magnetic field- switchbacks (SBs). A possible generation mechanism of SBs is through magnetic reconnection between open and closed magnetic flux near the solar surface, termed interchange reconnection, that leads to the ejection of flux ropes (FRs) into the solar wind. Observations also suggest that SBs undergo merging, consistent with an FR picture of t ... Agapitov, O.~V.; Drake, J.~F.; Swisdak, M.; Bale, S.~D.; Horbury, T.~S.; Kasper, J.~C.; MacDowall, R.~J.; Mozer, F.~S.; Phan, T.~D.; Pulupa, M.; Raouafi, N.~E.; Velli, M.; Published by: \apj Published on: feb YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac4016 Sub-Alfv\ enic Solar Wind Observed by the Parker Solar Probe: Characterization of Turbulence, Anisotropy, Intermittency, and Switchback In the lower solar coronal regions where the magnetic field is dominant, the Alfv\ en speed is much higher than the wind speed. In contrast, the near-Earth solar wind is strongly super- Alfv\ enic, i.e., the wind speed greatly exceeds the Alfv\ en speed. The transition between these regimes is classically described as the Alfv\ en point but may in fact occur in a distributed Alfv\ en critical region. NASA s Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission has entered this region, as it follows a series of orbits that gradually approach ... Bandyopadhyay, R.; Matthaeus, W.~H.; McComas, D.~J.; Chhiber, R.; Usmanov, A.~V.; Huang, J.; Livi, R.; Larson, D.~E.; Kasper, J.~C.; Case, A.~W.; Stevens, M.; Whittlesey, P.; Romeo, O.~M.; Bale, S.~D.; Bonnell, J.~W.; de Wit, Dudok; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P.~R.; MacDowall, R.~J.; Malaspina, D.~M.; Pulupa, M.; Published by: \apjl Published on: feb YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac4a5c PSP/IS\ensuremath\odotIS Observation of a Solar Energetic Particle Event Associated with a Streamer Blowout Coronal Mass Ejection during Encounter 6 In this paper we examine a low-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed by IS\ensuremath\odotIS s Energetic Particle Instrument-Low (EPI-Lo) inside 0.18 au on 2020 September 30. This small SEP event has a very interesting time profile and ion composition. Our results show that the maximum energy and peak in intensity are observed mainly along the open radial magnetic field. The event shows velocity dispersion, and strong particle anisotropies are observed throughout the event, showing that more particles are stre ... Getachew, T.; McComas, D.~J.; Joyce, C.~J.; Palmerio, E.; Christian, E.~R.; Cohen, C.~M.~S.; Desai, M.~I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M.~E.; Matthaeus, W.~H.; McNutt, R.~L.; Mitchell, D.~G.; Mitchell, J.~G.; Rankin, J.~S.; Roelof, E.~C.; Schwadron, N.~A.; Szalay, J.~R.; Zank, G.~P.; Zhao, L.; Lynch, B.~J.; Phan, T.~D.; Bale, S.~D.; Whittlesey, P.~L.; Kasper, J.~C.; Published by: \apj Published on: feb YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac408f Magnetic Field Intermittency in the Solar Wind: Parker Solar Probe and SolO Observations Ranging from the Alfv\ en Region up to 1 AU Parker Solar Probe (PSP) and SolO data are utilized to investigate magnetic field intermittency in the solar wind (SW). Small-scale intermittency (20-100 d$_ i $) is observed to radially strengthen when methods relying on higher-order moments are considered (SF$_ q ; SDK), but no clear trend is observed at larger scales. However, lower-order moment-based methods (e.g., partial variance of increments; PVI) are deemed more appropriate for examining the evolution of the bulk of coherent structures (CSs), PVI \ensuremath\geq 3 ... Sioulas, Nikos; Huang, Zesen; Velli, Marco; Chhiber, Rohit; Cuesta, Manuel; Shi, Chen; Matthaeus, William; Bandyopadhyay, Riddhi; Vlahos, Loukas; Bowen, Trevor; Qudsi, Ramiz; Bale, Stuart; Owen, Christopher; Louarn, P.; Fedorov, A.; c, Milan; Stevens, Michael; Case, Anthony; Kasper, Justin; Larson, Davin; Pulupa, Marc; Livi, Roberto; Published by: \apj Published on: aug YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7aa2 A magnetic flux rope configuration derived by optimization of two-spacecraft In-situ measurements Increasingly one interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) structure can propagate across more than one spacecraft in the solar wind. This usually happens when two or more spacecraft are nearly radially aligned with a relatively small longitudinal separation angle from one another. This provides multi-point measurements of the same structure and enables better characterization and validation of modeling results of the structures embedded in these ICMEs. We report such an event during October 13-14, 2019 when the Solar TErr ... Hu, Qiang; He, Wen; Chen, Yu; Published by: Frontiers in Physics Published on: aug YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3389/fphy.2022.960315 Preferential Heating of Protons over Electrons from Coherent Structures during the First Perihelion of the Parker Solar Probe The solar wind undergoes significant heating as it propagates away from the Sun; the exact mechanisms responsible for this heating remain unclear. Using data from the first perihelion of the Parker Solar Probe mission, we examine the properties of proton and electron heating occurring within magnetic coherent structures identified by means of the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method. Statistically, regions of space with strong gradients in the magnetic field, PVI \ensuremath\geq 1, are associated with strongly enhance ... Sioulas, Nikos; Shi, Chen; Huang, Zesen; Velli, Marco; Published by: \apjl Published on: aug YEAR: 2022 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac85de New Insights into the First Two PSP Solar Encounters Enabled by Modeling Analysis with ADAPT-WSA Parker Solar Probe s (PSP s) unique orbital path allows us to observe the solar wind closer to the Sun than ever before. Essential to advancing our knowledge of solar wind and energetic particle formation is identifying the sources of PSP observations. We report on results for the first two PSP solar encounters derived using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model driven by Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model maps. We derive the coronal magnetic field and the 1 R_\ensuremath\odot\$ source regions ... Wallace, Samantha; Jones, Shaela; Arge, Nick; Viall, Nicholeen; Henney, Carl; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac731c Patches of Magnetic Switchbacks and Their Origins Parker Solar Probe (PSP) has shown that the solar wind in the inner heliosphere is characterized by the quasi omnipresence of magnetic switchbacks ( switchback hereinafter), local backward bends of magnetic field lines. Switchbacks also tend to come in patches, with a large-scale modulation that appears to have a spatial scale size comparable to supergranulation on the Sun. Here we inspect data from the first 10 encounters of PSP focusing on different time intervals when clear switchback patches were observed by PSP. We s ... Shi, Chen; Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco; Tenerani, Anna; Verniero, Jaye; Sioulas, Nikos; Huang, Zesen; Brosius, A.; Bale, Stuart; Klein, Kristopher; Kasper, Justin; de Wit, Thierry; Goetz, Keith; Harvey, Peter; MacDowall, Robert; Malaspina, David; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; Case, Anthony; Stevens, Michael; Published by: \apj      Published on: aug YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac7c11

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