PSP Bibliography





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Found 70 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2021

Thin silicon solid-state detectors for energetic particle measurements. Development, characterization, and application on NASA s Parker Solar Probe mission

Context. Silicon solid-state detectors are commonly used for measuring the specific ionization, dE∕dx, in instruments designed for identifying energetic nuclei using the dE∕dx versus total energy technique in space and in the laboratory. The energy threshold and species resolution of the technique strongly depend on the thickness and thickness uniformity of these detectors.
Aims: Research has been carried out to develop processes for fabricating detectors that are thinner than 15 μm, that have a thickness uniform ...

Wiedenbeck, M.; Burnham, J.; Cohen, C.; Cook, W.; Crabill, R.; Cummings, A.; Davis, A.; Kecman, B.; Labrador, A.; Leske, R.; Mewaldt, R.; Rankin, J.; Rusert, M.; Stone, E.; Christian, E.; Goodwin, P.; Link, J.; Nahory, B.; Shuman, S.; von Rosenvinge, T.; Tindall, C.; Black, H.; Bullough, M.; Clarke, N.; Glasson, V.; Greenwood, N.; Hawkins, C.; Johnson, T.; Newton, A.; Richardson, K.; Walsh, S.; Wilburn, C.; Birdwell, B.; Everett, d.; McComas, D.; Weidner, S.; Angold, N.; Schwadron, N.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039754

instrumentation: detectors; Sun: particle emission; acceleration of particles; space vehicles: instruments; Parker Data Used

Magnetic field line random walk and solar energetic particle path lengths. Stochastic theory and PSP/IS⊙IS observations

Context. In 2020 May-June, six solar energetic ion events were observed by the Parker Solar Probe/IS⊙IS instrument suite at ≈0.35 AU from the Sun. From standard velocity-dispersion analysis, the apparent ion path length is ≈0.625 AU at the onset of each event.
Aims: We develop a formalism for estimating the path length of random-walking magnetic field lines to explain why the apparent ion path length at an event onset greatly exceeds the radial distance from the Sun for these events.
Methods: We developed ...

Chhiber, R.; Matthaeus, W.; Cohen, C.; Ruffolo, D.; Sonsrettee, W.; Tooprakai, P.; Seripienlert, A.; Chuychai, P.; Usmanov, A.; Goldstein, M.; McComas, D.; Leske, R.; Szalay, J.; Joyce, C.; Cummings, A.; Roelof, E.; Christian, E.; Mewaldt, R.; Labrador, A.; Giacalone, J.; Schwadron, N.; Mitchell, D.; Hill, M.; Wiedenbeck, M.; McNutt, R.; Desai, M.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039816

turbulence; Solar wind; Sun: magnetic fields; diffusion; Sun: flares; acceleration of particles; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Physics - Plasma Physics; Physics - Space Physics; Parker Data Used

Detection of small magnetic flux ropes from the third and fourth Parker Solar Probe encounters

Context.
Aims: We systematically search for magnetic flux rope structures in the solar wind to within the closest distance to the Sun of ~0.13 AU, using data from the third and fourth orbits of the Parker Solar Probe.
Methods: We extended our previous magnetic helicity-based technique of identifying magnetic flux rope structures. The method was improved upon to incorporate the azimuthal flow, which becomes larger as the spacecraft approaches the Sun.
Results: A total of 21 and 34 magnetic flux ropes are ...

Zhao, L.; Zank, G.; Hu, Q.; Telloni, D.; Chen, Y.; Adhikari, L.; Nakanotani, M.; Kasper, J.; Huang, J.; Bale, S.; Korreck, K.; Case, A.; Stevens, M.; Bonnell, J.; de Wit, Dudok; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P.; MacDowall, R.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.; Larson, D.; Livi, R.; Whittlesey, P.; Klein, K.; Raouafi, N.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039298

Solar wind; Sun: magnetic fields; turbulence; methods: observational; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Physics - Space Physics; Parker Data Used

Detection of small magnetic flux ropes from the third and fourth Parker Solar Probe encounters

Context.
Aims: We systematically search for magnetic flux rope structures in the solar wind to within the closest distance to the Sun of ~0.13 AU, using data from the third and fourth orbits of the Parker Solar Probe.
Methods: We extended our previous magnetic helicity-based technique of identifying magnetic flux rope structures. The method was improved upon to incorporate the azimuthal flow, which becomes larger as the spacecraft approaches the Sun.
Results: A total of 21 and 34 magnetic flux ropes are ...

Zhao, L.; Zank, G.; Hu, Q.; Telloni, D.; Chen, Y.; Adhikari, L.; Nakanotani, M.; Kasper, J.; Huang, J.; Bale, S.; Korreck, K.; Case, A.; Stevens, M.; Bonnell, J.; de Wit, Dudok; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P.; MacDowall, R.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.; Larson, D.; Livi, R.; Whittlesey, P.; Klein, K.; Raouafi, N.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039298

Solar wind; Sun: magnetic fields; turbulence; methods: observational; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Physics - Space Physics; Parker Data Used

Wave-particle energy transfer directly observed in an ion cyclotron wave

Context. The first studies with Parker Solar Probe (PSP) data have made significant progress toward understanding of the fundamental properties of ion cyclotron waves in the inner heliosphere. The survey mode particle measurements of PSP, however, did not make it possible to measure the coupling between electromagnetic fields and particles on the time scale of the wave periods.
Aims: We present a novel approach to study wave-particle energy exchange with PSP.
Methods: We used the Flux Angle operation mode of th ...

Vech, D.; Martinović, M.; Klein, K.; Malaspina, D.; Bowen, T.; Verniero, J.; Paulson, K.; de Wit, Dudok; Kasper, J.; Huang, J.; Stevens, M.; Case, A.; Korreck, K.; Mozer, F.; Goodrich, K.; Bale, S.; Whittlesey, P.; Livi, R.; Larson, D.; Pulupa, M.; Bonnell, J.; Harvey, P.; Goetz, K.; MacDowall, R.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039296

Solar wind; waves; turbulence; Physics - Space Physics; Physics - Plasma Physics; Parker Data Used

Discontinuity analysis of the leading switchback transition regions

Context. Magnetic switchbacks are magnetic structures characterized as intervals of sudden reversal in the radial component of the pristine solar wind s magnetic field. Switchbacks comprise of magnetic spikes that are preceded and succeeded by switchback transition regions within which the radial magnetic field reverses. Determining switchback generation and evolution mechanisms will further our understanding of the global circulation and transportation of the Sun s open magnetic flux.
Aims: The present study juxtapos ...

Akhavan-Tafti, M.; Kasper, J.; Huang, J.; Bale, S.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on: 06/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039508

magnetic reconnection; magnetic fields; Solar wind; methods: data analysis; magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); instabilities; Parker Data Used

Multiscale Solar Wind Turbulence Properties inside and near Switchbacks Measured by the Parker Solar Probe

The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) routinely observes magnetic field deflections in the solar wind at distances less than 0.3 au from the Sun. These deflections are related to structures commonly called "switchbacks" (SBs), whose origins and characteristic properties are currently debated. Here, we use a database of visually selected SB intervals—and regions of solar wind plasma measured just before and after each SB—to examine plasma parameters, turbulent spectra from inertial to dissipation scales, and intermittency ...

Martinovic, Mihailo; Klein, Kristopher; Huang, Jia; Chandran, Benjamin; Kasper, Justin; Lichko, Emily; Bowen, Trevor; Chen, Christopher; Matteini, Lorenzo; Stevens, Michael; Case, Anthony; Bale, Stuart;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 05/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abebe5

Parker Data Used; Space plasmas; interplanetary turbulence; Solar wind; 1544; 830; 1534; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Physics - Space Physics

The Ion Transition Range of Solar Wind Turbulence in the Inner Heliosphere: Parker Solar Probe Observations

The scaling of the turbulent spectra provides a key measurement that allows us to discriminate between different theoretical predictions of turbulence. In the solar wind, this has driven a large number of studies dedicated to this issue using in situ data from various orbiting spacecraft. While a semblance of consensus exists regarding the scaling in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and dispersive ranges, the precise scaling in the transition range and the actual physical mechanisms that control it remain open questions. Using ...

Huang, S; Sahraoui, F.; Andrés, N.; Hadid, L.; Yuan, Z.; He, J.; Zhao, J.; Galtier, S.; Zhang, J.; Deng, X.; Jiang, K.; Yu, L.; Xu, S.; Xiong, Q; Wei, Y; de Wit, Dudok; Bale, S.; Kasper, J.;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 03/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abdaaf

Parker Data Used; Solar wind; interplanetary turbulence; Solar coronal heating; 1534; 830; 1989; Physics - Space Physics; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

Execution of Parker Solar Probe s unprecedented flight to the Sun and early results

Guo, Yanping; Thompson, Paul; Wirzburger, John; Pinkine, Nick; Bushman, Stewart; Goodson, Troy; Haw, Rob; Hudson, James; Jones, Drew; Kijewski, Seth; Lathrop, Brian; Lau, Eunice; Mottinger, Neil; Ryne, Mark; Shyong, Wen-Jong; Valerino, Powtawche; Whittenburg, Karl;

Published by: Acta Astronautica      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2020.11.007

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; V$^7$GA trajectory; Spaceflight; Mission design; Navigation; Trajectory maneuver; parker solar probe

Parker Solar Probe Observations of Alfv\ enic Waves and Ion-cyclotron Waves in a Small-scale Flux Rope

Shi, Chen; Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jia; Wang, Tieyan; Wu, Dejin; Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang; Kasper, Justin; Bale, Stuart;

Published by: \apjl      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abdd28

Solar wind; Space plasmas; Plasma physics; 1534; 1544; 2089

Parker Solar Probe Observations of Alfv\ enic Waves and Ion-cyclotron Waves in a Small-scale Flux Rope

Shi, Chen; Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jia; Wang, Tieyan; Wu, Dejin; Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang; Kasper, Justin; Bale, Stuart;

Published by: \apjl      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abdd28

Solar wind; Space plasmas; Plasma physics; 1534; 1544; 2089

Characteristics of Magnetic Holes in the Solar Wind Revealed by Parker Solar Probe

Yu, L.; Huang, S.~Y.; Yuan, Z.~G.; Jiang, K.; Xiong, Q.~Y.; Xu, S.~B.; Wei, Y.~Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.~H.;

Published by: \apj      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abb9a8

Solar wind; Solar Physics; interplanetary magnetic fields; Solar magnetic fields; 1534; 1476; 824; 1503; Physics - Space Physics; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Physics - Plasma Physics

Whistlers in the Solar Vicinity That Are Spiky in Time and Frequency

Mozer, F.~S.; Bonnell, J.~W.; Halekas, J.~S.; Rahmati, A.; Schum, G.; Vasko, I.~V.;

Published by: \apj      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abce59

Solar wind; Solar Physics; Solar electromagnetic emission; 1534; 1476; 1490

Random Walk and Trapping of Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines: Global Simulation, Magnetic Connectivity, and Implications for Solar Energetic Particles

The random walk of magnetic field lines is an important ingredient in understanding how the connectivity of the magnetic field affects the spatial transport and diffusion of charged particles. As solar energetic particles propagate away from near-solar sources, they interact with the fluctuating magnetic field, which modifies their distributions. We develop a formalism in which the differential equation describing the field line random walk contains both effects due to localized magnetic displacements and a non-stochastic co ...

Chhiber, Rohit; Ruffolo, David; Matthaeus, William; Usmanov, Arcadi; Tooprakai, Paisan; Chuychai, Piyanate; Goldstein, Melvyn;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 02/2021

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abd7f0

Parker Data Used; Solar energetic particles; interplanetary turbulence; interplanetary magnetic fields; Solar wind; 1491; 830; 824; 1534; Physics - Space Physics; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Physics - Plasma Physics

Solar wind energy flux observations in the inner heliosphere: First results from Parker Solar Probe

Liu, M.; Issautier, K.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Moncuquet, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Halekas, J.; Huang, J.; Griton, L.; Bale, S.; Bonnell, J.; Case, A.; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P.; Kasper, J.; MacDowall, R.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.; Stevens, M.;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: "10.1051/0004-6361/202039615"

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus

Magnetic field line random walk and solar energetic particle path lengths. Stochastic theory and PSP/ISoIS observations

Chhiber, R.; Matthaeus, W.; Cohen, C.; Ruffolo, D.; Sonsrettee, W.; Tooprakai, P.; Seripienlert, A.; Chuychai, P.; Usmanov, A.; Goldstein, M.; McComas, D.; Leske, R.; Christian, E.; Mewaldt, R.; Labrador, A.; al., et;

Published by: Astronomy and Astrophysics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: "10.1051/0004-6361/202039816"

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus

2020

Particle-in-cell Simulation of Whistler Heat-flux Instabilities in the Solar Wind: Heat-flux Regulation and Electron Halo Formation

We present results of a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation in order to shed light on the role of whistler waves in the scattering of strahl electrons and in the heat-flux regulation in the solar wind. We model the electron velocity distribution function as initially composed of core and strahl populations as typically encountered in the near-Sun solar wind as observed by Parker Solar Probe. We demonstrate that, as a consequence of the evolution of the electron velocity distribution function (VDF), two ...

Micera, A.; Zhukov, A.; opez, R.; Innocenti, M.; Lazar, M.; Boella, E.; Lapenta, G.;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 11/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abc0e8

Parker Data Used; Solar wind; Space plasmas; Plasma astrophysics

Large-amplitude, Wideband, Doppler-shifted, Ion Acoustic Waves Observed on the Parker Solar Probe

Electric field spectra measured on the\ Parker\ Solar\ Probe\ typically contain upwards of 1000 large-amplitude (similar to 15 mV m(-1)), wideband (similar to 100-15,000 Hz), few-second-duration, electric field waveforms per day. The satellite also collected about 85 three-second bursts of electric field waveforms per day at a data rate of similar to 150,000 samples per second. Eight such bursts caught these waves, all of which were located in switchbacks of the magnetic field. A wave burst on 2019 Sep ...

Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J.; Bowen, T.; Schumm, G.; Vasko, I;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abafb4

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus; Solar wind

Wave Composition, Propagation, and Polarization of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence within 0.3 au as Observed by Parker Solar Probe

Turbulence, a ubiquitous phenomenon in interplanetary space, is crucial for the energy conversion of space plasma at multiple scales. This work focuses on the propagation, polarization, and wave composition properties of the\ solar\ wind turbulence within 0.3 au, and its variation with heliocentric distance at magnetohydrodynamic scales (from 10 s to 1000 s in the spacecraft frame). We present the probability density function of propagation wavevectors (PDF (k(parallel to),k)) for\ solar\ wind turbulen ...

Zhu, Xingyu; He, Jiansen; Verscharen, Daniel; Duan, Die; Bale, Stuart;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abb23e

Alfv\ en waves; Heliosphere; interplanetary turbulence; Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Slow solar wind; Solar Probe Plus

Editorial: Solar Wind at the Dawn of the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter Era

Solar Wind 15 brought together almost 250 experts from all continents of the world to discuss the current trends and future perspectives of the research on the Sun and its solar wind. The present article collection recaptures some of the highlights of their contributions.

Lapenta, Giovanni; Zhukov, Andrei; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia;

Published by: Solar Physics      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1007/s11207-020-01670-8

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus; Solar wind

Kinetic Scale Slow Solar Wind Turbulence in the Inner Heliosphere: Coexistence of Kinetic Alfv\ en Waves and Alfv\ en Ion Cyclotron Waves

The nature of the plasma wave modes around the ion kinetic scales in highly Alfv\ enic slow solar wind turbulence is investigated using data from the NASA\textquoterights Parker Solar Probe taken in the inner heliosphere, at 0.18 au from the Sun. The joint distribution of the normalized reduced magnetic helicity σmRB, τ) is obtained, where θRB is the angle between the local mean magnetic field and the radial direction and τ is the temporal scale. Two populations around ion scales a ...

Huang, S; Zhang, J.; Sahraoui, F.; He, J.; Yuan, Z.; es, Andr\; Hadid, L.; Deng, X.; Jiang, K.; Yu, L.; Xiong, Q; Wei, Y; Xu, S.; Bale, S.; Kasper, J.;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab9abb

1261; 1534; 1544; 1693; 1873; 23; 711; 824; 830; Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Physics - Plasma Physics; Physics - Space Physics; Solar Probe Plus

Effects of Radial Distances on Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Solar Wind

Small-scale magnetic flux ropes (SFRs) in the solar wind have been studied for decades. Statistical analysis utilizing various in situ spacecraft measurements is the main observational approach to investigating the generation and evolution of these small-scale structures. Based on the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction technique, we use the automated detection algorithm to build the databases of these small-scale structures via various spacecraft measurements at different heliocentric distances. We present the SFR properties, ...

Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 05/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab8294

Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; parker solar probe; Physics - Space Physics; Solar Probe Plus

The Heliospheric Current Sheet and Plasma Sheet during Parker Solar Probe\textquoterights First Orbit

We present heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and plasma sheet (HPS) observations during Parker Solar Probe\textquoterights (PSP) first orbit around the Sun. We focus on the eight intervals that display a true sector boundary (TSB; based on suprathermal electron pitch angle distributions) with one or several associated current sheets. The analysis shows that (1) the main density enhancements in the vicinity of the TSB and HCS are typically associated with electron strahl dropouts, implying magnetic disconnection from the Su ...

Lavraud, B.; Fargette, N.; eville, V.; Szabo, A.; Huang, J.; Rouillard, A.; Viall, N.; Phan, T.; Kasper, J.; Bale, S.; Berthomier, M.; Bonnell, J.; Case, A.; de Wit, Dudok; Eastwood, J.; enot, V.; Goetz, K.; Griton, L.; Halekas, J.; Harvey, P.; Kieokaew, R.; Klein, K.; Korreck, K.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Larson, D.; Lavarra, M.; Livi, R.; Louarn, P.; MacDowall, R.; Maksimovic, M.; Malaspina, D.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Pinto, R.; Poirier, N.; Pulupa, M.; Raouafi, N.; Stevens, M.; Toledo-Redondo, S.; Whittlesey, P.;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 05/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab8d2d

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus

Proton Temperature Anisotropy Variations in Inner Heliosphere Estimated with the First Parker Solar Probe Observations

We present a technique for deriving the temperature anisotropy of solar wind protons observed by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission in the near-Sun solar wind. The radial proton temperature measured by the Solar Wind Electrons, Alphas, and Protons (SWEAP) Solar Probe Cup is compared with the orientation of local magnetic field measured by the FIELDS fluxgate magnetometer, and the proton temperatures parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are extracted. This procedure is applied to different data products, and the ...

Huang, Jia; Kasper, J.; Vech, D.; Klein, K.; Stevens, M.; Martinovic, Mihailo; Alterman, B.; Durovcova, Tereza; Paulson, Kristoff; Maruca, Bennett; Qudsi, Ramiz; Case, A.; Korreck, K.; Jian, Lan; Velli, Marco; Lavraud, B.; Hegedus, A.; Bert, C.; Holmes, J.; Bale, Stuart; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; Whittlesey, P.; Pulupa, Marc; MacDowall, Robert; Malaspina, David; Bonnell, John; Harvey, Peter; Goetz, Keith; de Wit, Thierry;

Published by: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab74e0

Parker Data Used

The Enhancement of Proton Stochastic Heating in the Near-Sun Solar Wind

Stochastic heating (SH) is a nonlinear heating mechanism driven by the violation of magnetic moment invariance due to large-amplitude turbulent fluctuations producing diffusion of ions toward higher kinetic energies in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is frequently invoked as a mechanism responsible for the heating of ions in the solar wind. Here, we quantify for the first time the proton SH rate Q at radial distances from the Sun as close as 0.16 au, using measurements from the first tw ...

Martinovic, Mihailo; Klein, Kristopher; Kasper, Justin; Case, Anthony; Korreck, Kelly; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; Stevens, Michael; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Chandran, Benjamin; Alterman, Ben; Huang, Jia; Chen, Christopher; Bale, Stuart; Pulupa, Marc; Malaspina, David; Bonnell, John; Harvey, Peter; Goetz, Keith; de Wit, Thierry; MacDowall, Robert;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab527f

Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Physics - Plasma Physics; Solar Probe Plus

Identification of Magnetic Flux Ropes from Parker Solar Probe Observations during the First Encounter

The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observed an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) event during its first orbit around the Sun, among many other events. This event is analyzed by applying a wavelet analysis technique to obtain the reduced magnetic helicity, cross helicity, and residual energy, the first two of which are magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) invariants. Our results show that the ICME, as a large-scale magnetic flux rope, possesses high magnetic helicity, very low cross helicity, and highly negative residual energy, ...

Zhao, L.-L.; Zank, G.; Adhikari, L.; Hu, Q.; Kasper, J.; Bale, S.; Korreck, K.; Case, A.; Stevens, M.; Bonnell, J.; de Wit, Dudok; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P.; MacDowall, R.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.; Larson, D.; Livi, R.; Whittlesey, P.; Klein, K.;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab4ff1

Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Physics - Space Physics; Solar Probe Plus

Ion-scale Electromagnetic Waves in the Inner Heliosphere

Understanding the physical processes in the solar wind and corona that actively contribute to heating, acceleration, and dissipation is a primary objective of NASA\textquoterights Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission. Observations of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves at ion scales suggest that cyclotron resonance and wave-particle interactions are dynamically relevant in the inner heliosphere. A wavelet-based statistical study of circularly polarized events in the first perihelion encounter of PSP demonstrates that t ...

Bowen, Trevor; Mallet, Alfred; Huang, Jia; Klein, Kristopher; Malaspina, David; Stevens, Michael; Bale, Stuart; Bonnell, J.; Case, Anthony; Chandran, Benjamin; Chaston, C.; Chen, Christopher; de Wit, Thierry; Goetz, Keith; Harvey, Peter; Howes, Gregory; Kasper, J.; Korreck, Kelly; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; MacDowall, Robert; McManus, Michael; Pulupa, Marc; Verniero, J.; Whittlesey, Phyllis;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab6c65

Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Physics - Space Physics; Solar Probe Plus

Kinetic-scale Spectral Features of Cross Helicity and Residual Energy in the Inner Heliosphere

In this work, we present the first results from the flux angle (FA) operation mode of the Faraday Cup instrument on board the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). The FA mode allows rapid measurements of phase space density fluctuations close to the peak of the proton velocity distribution function with a cadence of 293 Hz. This approach provides an invaluable tool for understanding kinetic-scale turbulence in the solar wind and solar corona. We describe a technique to convert the phase space density fluctuations into vector velocit ...

Vech, Daniel; Kasper, Justin; Klein, Kristopher; Huang, Jia; Stevens, Michael; Chen, Christopher; Case, Anthony; Korreck, Kelly; Bale, Stuart; Bowen, Trevor; Whittlesey, Phyllis; Livi, Roberto; Larson, Davin; Malaspina, David; Pulupa, Marc; Bonnell, John; Harvey, Peter; Goetz, Keith; de Wit, Thierry; MacDowall, Robert;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab60a2

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Physics - Plasma Physics; Physics - Space Physics; Solar Probe Plus

Time Domain Structures and Dust in the Solar Vicinity: Parker Solar Probe Observations

On 2019 April 5, while the Parker Solar Probe was at its 35 solar radius perihelion, the data set collected at 293 samples/s contained more than 10,000 examples of spiky electric-field-like structures with durations less than 200 milliseconds and amplitudes greater than 10 mV m-1. The vast majority of these events were caused by plasma turbulence. Defining dust events as those with similar, narrowly peaked, positive, and single-ended signatures resulted in finding 135 clear dust events, which, after correcting ...

Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O.; Bale, S.; Bonnell, J.; Goetz, K.; Goodrich, K.; Gore, R.; Harvey, P.; Kellogg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Pulupa, M.; Schumm, G.;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5e4b

Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Physics - Space Physics; Solar Probe Plus

Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes in the First Two Parker Solar Probe Encounters

Small-scale magnetic flux ropes (SFRs) are a type of structure in the solar wind that possess helical magnetic field lines. In a recent report we presented the radial variations of the properties of SFRs from 0.29 to 8 au using in situ measurements from the Helios, Advanced Composition Explorer/WIND (ACE/Wind), Ulysses, and Voyager spacecrafts. With the launch of the Parker Solar Probe (PSP), we extend our previous investigation further into the inner heliosphere. We apply a Grad–Shafranov-based algorithm to identify SFRs ...

Chen, Yu; Hu, Qiang; Zhao, Lingling; Kasper, Justin; Bale, Stuart; Korreck, Kelly; Case, Anthony; Stevens, Michael; Bonnell, John; Goetz, Keith; Harvey, Peter; Klein, Kristopher; Larson, Davin; Livi, Roberto; MacDowall, Robert; Malaspina, David; Pulupa, Marc; Whittlesey, Phyllis;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abb820

Solar wind; interplanetary turbulence; Magnetohydrodynamics; Astronomy data analysis; Astronomy databases; Parker Data Used

2019

No Evidence for Critical Balance in Field-aligned Alfv\ enic Solar Wind Turbulence

Telloni, Daniele; Carbone, Francesco; Bruno, Roberto; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Zank, Gary; Adhikari, Laxman; Hunana, Peter;

Published by: \apj      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab517b

Parker Data Used; interplanetary turbulence; Solar wind; Space plasmas; Alfven waves; Interplanetary medium; Magnetohydrodynamics; 830; 1534; 1544; 23; 825; 1964

Alfv\ enic velocity spikes and rotational flows in the near-Sun solar wind

Kasper, J.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Belcher, J.~W.; Berthomier, M.; Case, A.~W.; Chandran, B.~D.~G.; Curtis, D.~W.; Gallagher, D.; Gary, S.~P.; Golub, L.; Halekas, J.~S.; Ho, G.~C.; Horbury, T.~S.; Hu, Q.; Huang, J.; Klein, K.~G.; Korreck, K.~E.; Larson, D.~E.; Livi, R.; Maruca, B.; Lavraud, B.; Louarn, P.; Maksimovic, M.; Martinovic, M.; McGinnis, D.; Pogorelov, N.~V.; Richardson, J.~D.; Skoug, R.~M.; Steinberg, J.~T.; Stevens, M.~L.; Szabo, A.; Velli, M.; Whittlesey, P.~L.; Wright, K.~H.; Zank, G.~P.; MacDowall, R.~J.; McComas, D.~J.; McNutt, R.~L.; Pulupa, M.; Raouafi, N.~E.; Schwadron, N.~A.;

Published by: \nat      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1813-z

Parker Data Used

Alfv\ enic velocity spikes and rotational flows in the near-Sun solar wind

Kasper, J.~C.; Bale, S.~D.; Belcher, J.~W.; Berthomier, M.; Case, A.~W.; Chandran, B.~D.~G.; Curtis, D.~W.; Gallagher, D.; Gary, S.~P.; Golub, L.; Halekas, J.~S.; Ho, G.~C.; Horbury, T.~S.; Hu, Q.; Huang, J.; Klein, K.~G.; Korreck, K.~E.; Larson, D.~E.; Livi, R.; Maruca, B.; Lavraud, B.; Louarn, P.; Maksimovic, M.; Martinovic, M.; McGinnis, D.; Pogorelov, N.~V.; Richardson, J.~D.; Skoug, R.~M.; Steinberg, J.~T.; Stevens, M.~L.; Szabo, A.; Velli, M.; Whittlesey, P.~L.; Wright, K.~H.; Zank, G.~P.; MacDowall, R.~J.; McComas, D.~J.; McNutt, R.~L.; Pulupa, M.; Raouafi, N.~E.; Schwadron, N.~A.;

Published by: \nat      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1813-z

Parker Data Used

Highly structured slow solar wind emerging from an equatorial coronal hole

During the solar minimum, when the Sun is at its least active, the solar wind is observed at high latitudes as a predominantly fast (more than 500 kilometres per second), highly Alfv\ enic rarefied stream of plasma originating from deep within coronal holes. Closer to the ecliptic plane, the solar wind is interspersed with a more variable slow wind of less than 500 kilometres per second. The precise origins of the slow wind streams are less certain; theories and observations suggest that they may originate at the tips of ...

Bale, S.; Badman, S.; Bonnell, J.; Bowen, T.; Burgess, D.; Case, A.; Cattell, C.; Chandran, B.; Chaston, C.; Chen, C.; Drake, J.; de Wit, Dudok; Eastwood, J.; Ergun, R.; Farrell, W.; Fong, C.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M.; Goodrich, K.; Harvey, P.; Horbury, T.; Howes, G.; Kasper, J.; Kellogg, P.; Klimchuk, J.; Korreck, K.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Krucker, S.; Laker, R.; Larson, D.; MacDowall, R.; Maksimovic, M.; Malaspina, D.; Martinez-Oliveros, J.; McComas, D.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Moncuquet, M.; Mozer, F.; Phan, T.; Pulupa, M.; Raouafi, N.; Salem, C.; Stansby, D.; Stevens, M.; Szabo, A.; Velli, M.; Woolley, T.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1818-7

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus

Near-Sun observations of an F-corona decrease and K-corona fine structure

Remote observations of the solar photospheric light scattered by electrons (the K-corona) and dust (the F-corona or zodiacal light) have been made from the ground during eclipses and from space at distances as small as 0.3 astronomical units to the Sun. Previous observations of dust scattering have not confirmed the existence of the theoretically predicted dust-free zone near the Sun. The transient nature of the corona has been well characterized for large events, but questions still remain (for example, about the initiat ...

Howard, R.; Vourlidas, A.; Bothmer, V.; Colaninno, R.; Deforest, C.; Gallagher, B.; Hall, J.; Hess, P.; Higginson, A.; Korendyke, C.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Lamy, P.; Liewer, P.; Linker, J.; Linton, M.; Penteado, P.; Plunkett, S.; Poirier, N.; Raouafi, N.; Rich, N.; Rochus, P.; Rouillard, A.; Socker, D.; Stenborg, G.; Thernisien, A.; Viall, N.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1807-x

Parker Data Used; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus

Frontiers to be explored by the Parker Solar Probe mission

JianSen, He; Hui, Tian;

Published by: SCIENCE CHINA-TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES      Published on: 08/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1007/s11431-018-9399-9

Parker Data Used

Single-spacecraft Identification of Flux Tubes and Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

A novel technique is presented for describing and visualizing the local topology of the magnetic field using single-spacecraft data in the solar wind. The approach merges two established techniques: the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction method, which provides a plausible regional two-dimensional magnetic field surrounding the spacecraft trajectory, and the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) technique that identifies coherent magnetic structures, such as current sheets. When applied to one month of Wind magnetic field d ...

Pecora, Francesco; Greco, Antonella; Hu, Qiang; Servidio, Sergio; Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, William;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 08/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab32d9

interplanetary turbulence; magnetic fields; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus; Solar wind

So you Passed an Earned Value Management Government Validation - Now What?

In December 2016, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) received formal acceptance from NASA that its Earned Value Management System (EVMS) complied with the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) Standard 748 EVMS guidelines and thus had a government validated system. JHU/APL had successfully used its EVMS for single, large missions (Van Allen Probe from January 2009 to July 2012 and Parker Solar Probe from April 2014 to August 2018), but now with an increased workload JHU/APL was faced with the ne ...

Liggett, William; Hunter, Howard; Jones, Matthew;

Published by: IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings      Published on:

YEAR: 2019     DOI:

Budget control; Electronics industry; Financial data processing; Investments; NASA; Probes; Parker Engineering;

Execution of Parker solar probe s unprecedented flight to the sun and early results

Parker Solar Probe (PSP) was launched on August 12, 2018, on its way to enter the solar corona and "touch" the Sun for the first time. We utilize enormous planetary gravity assists from 7 repeated Venus flybys via a V7GA trajectory in 24 solar orbits over 7 years, to get within 8.86 solar radii from the Sun s surface. The probe successfully entered the V7GA trajectory and made the first Venus flyby only 52 days after launch. Five weeks later it flew by the Sun at a perihelion distance of 0.166 AU and fl ...

Guo, Yanping; Thompson, Paul; Wirzburger, John; Pinkine, Nick; Bushman, Stewart; Goodson, Troy; Haw, Rob; Hudson, James; Jones, Drew; Kijewski, Seth; Lathrop, Brian; Lau, Eunice; Mottinger, Neil; Ryne, Mark; Shyong, Wen-Jong; Valerino, Powtawche; Whittenburg, Karl;

Published by: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC      Published on:

YEAR: 2019     DOI:

Interplanetary flight; Navigation; Orbits; Space flight; Parker Engineering;

2018

Modeling a Single SEP Event from Multiple Vantage Points Using the iPATH Model

Using the recently extended 2D improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model, we model an example gradual solar energetic particle event as observed at multiple locations. Protons and ions that are energized via the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism are followed at a 2D coronal mass ejection-driven shock where the shock geometry varies across the shock front. The subsequent transport of energetic particles, including cross-field diffusion, is modeled by a Monte Carlo code that is based ...

Hu, Junxiang; Li, Gang; Fu, Shuai; Zank, Gary; Ao, Xianzhi;

Published by: The Astrophysical Journal      Published on: 02/2018

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaabc1

parker solar probe; shock waves; Solar Probe Plus; Sun: coronal mass ejections: CMEs; Sun: heliosphere

Stray Light Analysis and Testing of the SoloHI (Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager) and WISPR (Wide Field Imager for Solar Probe) Heliospheric Imagers

The techniques for stray light analysis, optimization and testing are described for two space telescopes that observe the solar corona: the Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI) that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter (SolO), and the Wide Field Imager for Solar Probe (WISPR) that will fly on the NASA Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission. Imaging the solar corona is challenging, because the corona is six orders of magnitude dimmer than the Sun surface at the limb, and the coronal brightness continues to decrease to ten orders ...

Thernisien, Arnaud; Howard, Russell; Korendyke, Clarence; Carter, Tim; Chua, Damien; Plunkett, Simon;

Published by:       Published on:

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1117/12.2313645

Parker Data Used

Orbit determination covariance analyses for the parker solar probe mission

This paper details pre-launch navigation covariance analyses for the Parker Solar Probe mission. Baseline models and error assumptions are outlined. The results demonstrate how navigation will satisfy requirements and are used to define operational plans. A few sensitivities are identified and the accompanying investigations are described. Predicted state uncertainty results show that most requirements are met with substantial margin. Moreover, navigation sensitivities may be accommodated operationally and this has been inco ...

Jones, Drew; Thompson, Paul; Valerino, Powtawche; Lau, Eunice; Goodson, Troy; Chung, Min-Kun; Mottinger, Neil;

Published by: Advances in the Astronautical Sciences      Published on:

YEAR: 2018     DOI:

Astrophysics; Probes; Parker Engineering;

Parker solar probe navigation: One year from launch

Parker Solar Probe (PSP) will be the first spacecraft designed to fly deep within the Sun’s lower corona and also becoming the fastest spacecraft flown. Launch is scheduled for next year, with a 20-day launch period beginning on 31 July 2018. PSP will be on a ballistic trajectory, requiring seven Venus flybys to progressively lower the perihelion over the seven-year mission. This near-solar environment can be particularly challenging from a spacecraft design as well as a navigation perspective. We discuss an overview o ...

Thompson, Paul; Goodson, Troy; Chung, Min-Kun; Jones, Drew; Lau, Eunice; Mottinger, Neil; Valerino, Powtawche;

Published by: Advances in the Astronautical Sciences      Published on:

YEAR: 2018     DOI:

Astrophysics; Parker Engineering;

Flight path control analysis for parker solar probe

An unprecedented NASA mission to study the Sun, known as Parker Solar Probe (PSP), is under development. The primary objective of the PSP mission is to gather new data within 10 solar radii of the Sun’s center. The purpose of this paper is to review the statistical analysis of trajectory correction maneuvers (TCMs) for PSP’s baseline trajectory. The baseline mission includes a total of 42 TCMs that will be accomplished with a monopropellant propulsion system that consists of twelve 4.4 N thrusters. Assuming curre ...

Valerino, Powtawche; Thompson, Paul; Jones, Drew; Goodson, Troy; Chung, Min-Kun; Mottinger, Neil;

Published by: Advances in the Astronautical Sciences      Published on:

YEAR: 2018     DOI:

Astrophysics; NASA; Probes; Propulsion; Statistical methods; Parker Engineering;

Stray light analysis and testing of the SoloHI (solar orbiter heliospheric imager) and WISPR (wide field imager for solar probe) heliospheric imagers

The techniques for stray light analysis, optimization and testing are described for two space telescopes that observe the solar corona: the Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI) that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter (SolO), and the Wide Field Imager for Solar Probe (WISPR) that will fly on the NASA Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission. Imaging the solar corona is challenging, because the corona is six orders of magnitude dimmer than the Sun surface at the limb, and the coronal brightness continues to decrease to ten orders ...

Thernisien, Arnaud; Howard, Russell; Korendyke, Clarence; Carter, Tim; Chua, Damien; Plunkett, Simon;

Published by: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering      Published on:

YEAR: 2018     DOI:

Diffraction; Heat shielding; Image analysis; Millimeter waves; NASA; Optical coatings; Orbits; Probes; Ray tracing; Solar cell arrays; Solar radiation; Space flight; Space telescopes; Spacecraft; Parker Engineering;

2017

Capabilities and Performance of the High-Energy Energetic-Particles Instrument for the Parker Solar Probe Mission

NASA\textquoterights Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft (formerly Solar Probe Plus) is scheduled for launch in July 2018 with a planned heliocentric orbit that will carry it on a series of close passes by the Sun with perihelion distances that eventually will get below 10 solar radii. Among other in-situ and imaging sensors, the PSP payload includes the two-instrument \textquotedblleftIntegrated Science Investigation of the Sun\textquotedblright suite, which will make coordinated measurements of energetic ions and electr ...

Wiedenbeck, M.; Angold, N.; Birdwell, B.; Burnham, J.; Christian, E.; Cohen, C.; Cook, W.; Cummings, A.; Davis, A.; Dirks, G.; Do, D.; Everett, d.; Goodwin, P.; Hanley, J.; Hernandez, L.; Kecman, B.; Klemic, J.; Labrador, A.; Leske, R.; Lopez, S.; Link, J.; McComas, D.; Mewaldt, R.; Miyasaka, H.; Nahory, B.; Rankin, J.; Riggans, G.; Rodriguez, B.; Rusert, M.; Shuman, S.; Simms, K.; Stone, E.; von Rosenvinge, T.; Weidner, S.; White, M.;

Published by:       Published on: 10/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.22323/1.301.0016

Parker Data Used

Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind

Shiota, D.; Zank, G.~P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Telloni, D.; Bruno, R.;

Published by: \apj      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa60bc

Parker Data Used; magnetohydrodynamics: MHD; Solar wind; turbulence

Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Magnetic Fields

Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Blasi, P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W.~H.; Montgomery, D.; Chuychai, P.; Dmitruk, P.; Wan, M.; Parashar, T.~N.; Chhiber, R.;

Published by: \apj      Published on: 03/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa603a

Parker Data Used; astroparticle physics; cosmic rays; diffusion; magnetic fields; scattering; turbulence; Physics - Space Physics; Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

The Mushroom: A half-sky energetic ion and electron detector

We present a time-of-flight mass spectrometer design for the measurement of ions in the 30 keV to 10 MeV range for protons (up to 40 MeV and 150 MeV for He and heavy ions, respectively) and 30 keV to 1 MeV range for electrons, covering half of the sky with 80 apertures. The instrument, known as the "Mushroom," owing to its shape, solves the field of view problem for magnetospheric and heliospheric missions that employ three-axis stabilized spacecraft, yet still require extended angular coverage; the Mushroom is also compa ...

Hill, M.; Mitchell, D.; Andrews, G.; Cooper, S.; Gurnee, R.; Hayes, J.; Layman, R.; McNutt, R.; Nelson, K.; Parker, C.; Schlemm, C.; Stokes, M.; Begley, S.; Boyle, M.; Burgum, J.; Do, D.; Dupont, A.; Gold, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hoffer, E.; Hutcheson, J.; Jaskulek, S.; Krimigis, S.; Liang, S.; London, S.; Noble, M.; Roelof, E.; Seifert, H.; Strohbehn, K.; Vandegriff, J.; Westlake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2017

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022614

2 pi steradian; anisotropy; mass composition; microchannel plate; parker solar probe; Solar Probe Plus; solid-state detector; time of flight

Navigating an earned value management validation led by NASA: A contractor s perspective and helpful hints

In 2012, The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) was approved by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to move forward with Phase B of the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) Mission to design and build the first spacecraft to fly into the Sun s outer atmosphere and study its effects on planetary systems and human activities. While APL had successfully utilized its earned value management system (EVMS) on the Van Allen Probes mission, the SPP contract called for a "certified" EVMS, which required an in-depth ...

Liggett, William; Hunter, Howard; Jones, Matthew;

Published by: IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings      Published on:

YEAR: 2017     DOI:

Budget control; Compliance control; Contractors; Human resource management; Man machine systems; NASA; Network security; Personnel training; Probes; Project management; Space flight; Value engineering; Parker Engineering;



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