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Authors: Chhiber Rohit, Goldstein M L., Maruca B. A., Chasapis A., Matthaeus W. H., et al.
Title: Clustering of Intermittent Magnetic and Flow Structures near Parker Solar Probe ’s First Perihelion—A Partial-variance-of-increments Analysis

During the Parker Solar Probe's (PSP) first perihelion pass, the spacecraft reached within a heliocentric distance of ̃37 R and observed numerous magnetic and flow structures characterized by sharp gradients. To better understand these intermittent structures in the young solar wind, an important property to examine is their degree of correlation in time and space. To this end, we use the well-tested partial variance of increments (PVI) technique to identify intermittent events in FIELDS and SWEAP observations of magnetic and proton-velocity fields (respectively) during PSP's first solar encounter, when the spacecraft was within 0.25 au from the Sun. We then examine distributions of waiting times (WT) between events with varying separation and PVI thresholds. We find powe. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 31 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab53d2 Available at:
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Authors: Berčič Laura, Larson Davin, Whittlesey Phyllis, Maksimovic Milan, Badman Samuel T., et al.
Title: Coronal Electron Temperature Inferred from the Strahl Electrons in the Inner Heliosphere: Parker Solar Probe and Helios Observations

The shape of the electron velocity distribution function plays an important role in the dynamics of the solar wind acceleration. Electrons are normally modeled with three components, the core, the halo, and the strahl. We investigate how well the fast strahl electrons in the inner heliosphere preserve the information about the coronal electron temperature at their origin. We analyzed the data obtained by two missions, Helios, spanning the distances between 65 and 215 RS, and Parker Solar Probe (PSP), reaching down to 35 RS during its first two orbits around the Sun. The electron strahl was characterized with two parameters: pitch-angle width (PAW) and the strahl parallel temperature (Ts∥). PSP observations confirm the already reported dependence of str. . .
Date: 04/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab7b7a Available at:
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Authors: Sterling Alphonse C., and Moore Ronald L.
Title: Coronal-jet-producing Minifilament Eruptions as a Possible Source of Parker Solar Probe Switchbacks

The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) has observed copious rapid magnetic field direction changes in the near-Sun solar wind. These features have been called "switchbacks," and their origin is a mystery. But their widespread nature suggests that they may be generated by a frequently occurring process in the Sun's atmosphere. We examine the possibility that the switchbacks originate from coronal jets. Recent work suggests that many coronal jets result when photospheric magnetic flux cancels, and forms a small-scale "minifilament" flux rope that erupts and reconnects with coronal field. We argue that the reconnected erupting-minifilament flux rope can manifest as an outward propagating Alfvénic fluctuation that steepens into an increasingly compact disturbance as it moves through the solar wind. . . .
Date: 06/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: L18 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab96be Available at:
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Authors: McManus Michael D., Bowen Trevor A., Mallet Alfred, Chen Christopher H. K., Chandran Benjamin D. G., et al.
Title: Cross Helicity Reversals in Magnetic Switchbacks

We consider 2D joint distributions of normalized residual energy, σr(s, t), and cross helicity, σc(s, t), during one day of Parker Solar Probe's (PSP's) first encounter as a function of wavelet scale s. The broad features of the distributions are similar to previous observations made by Helios in slow solar wind, namely well-correlated and fairly Alfvénic wind, except for a population with negative cross helicity that is seen at shorter wavelet scales. We show that this population is due to the presence of magnetic switchbacks, or brief periods where the magnetic field polarity reverses. Such switchbacks have been observed before, both in Helios data and in Ulysses data in the polar solar wind. Their abundance and short timescales as seen by PSP in its first enc. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 67 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab6dce Available at:
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Authors: Chhiber Rohit, Usmanov Arcadi V., Matthaeus William H., and Goldstein Melvyn L.
Title: Contextual Predictions for the Parker Solar Probe . I. Critical Surfaces and Regions

The solar corona and young solar wind may be characterized by critical surfaces—the sonic, Alfvén, and first plasma-β unity surfaces—that demarcate regions where the solar wind flow undergoes certain crucial transformations. Global numerical simulations and remote sensing observations offer a natural mode for the study of these surfaces at large scales, thus providing valuable context for the high-resolution in situ measurements expected from the recently launched Parker Solar Probe (PSP). The present study utilizes global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind to characterize the critical surfaces and investigate the flow in propinquitous regions. Effects of solar activity are incorporated by varying source magnetic dipole tilts and employing ma. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 11 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab0652 Available at:
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Authors: Park Il Heung, Lee Hyun Su, Oh Suyeon, Kwak Young-Sil, Wiedenbeck M. E., et al.
Title: Capabilities and Performance of the High-Energy Energetic-Particles Instrument for the Parker Solar Probe Mission

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft (formerly Solar Probe Plus) is scheduled for launch in July 2018 with a planned heliocentric orbit that will carry it on a series of close passes by the Sun with perihelion distances that eventually will get below 10 solar radii. Among other in-situ and imaging sensors, the PSP payload includes the two-instrument “Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun” suite, which will make coordinated measurements of energetic ions and electrons. The high-energy instrument (EPI-Hi), operating in the MeV energy range, consists of three detector-telescopes using silicon solid-state sensors for measuring composition, energy spectra, angular distributions, and time structure in solar energetic particle events. The expected performance of this instrume. . .
Date: 10/2017 Publisher: Sissa Medialab DOI: 10.22323/1.301.0016 Available at:
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Authors: Tracy Patrick J., Kasper Justin C., Raines Jim M., Shearer Paul, Gilbert Jason A., et al.
Title: Constraining Solar Wind Heating Processes by Kinetic Properties of Heavy Ions

We analyze the heavy ion components (A >4 amu ) in collisionally young solar wind plasma and show that there is a clear, stable dependence of temperature on mass, probably reflecting the conditions in the solar corona. We consider both linear and power law forms for the dependence and find that a simple linear fit of the form Ti/Tp=(1.35 ±.02 )mi/mp describes the observations twice as well as the equivalent best fit power law of the form Ti/Tp=(mi/mp) 1.07 ±.01 . Most importantly we find that current model predictions based on turbulent transport and kinetic dissipation are in agreement with observed nonthermal heating in intermediate collisional age plasma for m /q <3.5 , but are . . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Physical Review Letters DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.255101 Available at:
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Authors: Daloz Anne S., Camargo S. J., Kossin J. P., Emanuel K., Horn M., et al.
Title: Cluster Analysis of Downscaled and Explicitly Simulated North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks

A realistic representation of the North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks is crucial as it allows, for example, explaining potential changes in U.S. landfalling systems. Here, the authors present a tentative study that examines the ability of recent climate models to represent North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks. Tracks from two types of climate models are evaluated: explicit tracks are obtained from tropical cyclones simulated in regional or global climate models with moderate to high horizontal resolution (1°–0.25°), and downscaled tracks are obtained using a downscaling technique with large-scale environmental fields from a subset of these models. For both configurations, tracks are objectively separated into four groups using a cluster technique, leading to a zonal and a merid. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Journal of Climate Pages: 1333 - 1361 DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00646.1 Available at:
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Authors: Marchand R., Miyake Y., Usui H., Deca J., Lapenta G., et al.
Title: Cross-comparison of spacecraft-environment interaction model predictions applied to Solar Probe Plus near perihelion

Five spacecraft-plasma models are used to simulate the interaction of a simplified geometry Solar Probe Plus (SPP) satellite with the space environment under representative solar wind conditions near perihelion. By considering similarities and differences between results obtained with different numerical approaches under well defined conditions, the consistency and validity of our models can be assessed. The impact on model predictions of physical effects of importance in the SPP mission is also considered by comparing results obtained with and without these effects. Simulation results are presented and compared with increasing levels of complexity in the physics of interaction between solar environment and the SPP spacecraft. The comparisons focus particularly on spacecraft floating po. . .
Date: 06/2014 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 062901 DOI: 10.1063/1.4882439 Available at:
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Authors: Velli Marco, Lionello Roberto, Linker Jon A., and ć Zoran

The expansion of a coronal hole filled with a discrete number of higher density coronal plumes is simulated using a time-dependent two-dimensional code. A solar wind model including an exponential coronal heating function and a flux of Alfvén waves propagating both inside and outside the structures is taken as a basic state. Different plasma plume profiles are obtained by using different scale heights for the heating rates. Remote sensing and solar wind in situ observations are used to constrain the parameter range of the study. Time dependence due to plume ignition and disappearance is also discussed. Velocity differences of the order of ~50 km s-1, such as those found in microstreams in the high-speed solar wind, may be easily explained by slightly different heat depositio. . .
Date: 07/2011 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 32 DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/32 Available at:
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