Found 27 results
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2020
Authors: Krupar Vratislav, Szabo Adam, Maksimovic Milan, Kruparova Oksana, Kontar Eduard P., et al.
Title: Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Based on Type III Radio Bursts Observed by Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

Radio waves are strongly scattered in the solar wind, so that their apparent sources seem to be considerably larger and shifted than the actual ones. Since the scattering depends on the spectrum of density turbulence, a better understanding of the radio wave propagation provides indirect information on the relative density fluctuations, ϵ=⟨δn⟩/⟨n⟩ ϵ=⟨δn⟩/⟨n⟩ , at the effective turbulence scale length. Here, we analyzed 30 type III bursts detected by Parker Solar Probe (PSP). For the first time, we retrieved type III burst decay times, τ d  τd , between 1 and 10 MHz thanks to an unparalleled temporal resolution of PSP. We observed a significant deviation in a power-law slope for frequencies above 1 MHz. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 57 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab65bd Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab65bd
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Authors: Bandyopadhyay Riddhi, Goldstein M. L., Maruca B. A., Matthaeus W. H., Parashar T. N., et al.
Title: Enhanced Energy Transfer Rate in Solar Wind Turbulence Observed near the Sun from Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

Direct evidence of an inertial-range turbulent energy cascade has been provided by spacecraft observations in heliospheric plasmas. In the solar wind, the average value of the derived heating rate near 1 au is ∼10 3 Jkg −1 s −1  ∼103Jkg−1s−1 , an amount sufficient to account for observed departures from adiabatic expansion. Parker Solar Probe, even during its first solar encounter, offers the first opportunity to compute, in a similar fashion, a fluid-scale energy decay rate, much closer to the solar corona than any prior in situ observations. Using the Politano─Pouquet third-order law and the von Kármán decay law, we estimate the fluid-range energy transfer rate in the inner heliosphere, at heliocentric distance R ranging from 54 RDate: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 48 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5dae Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5dae
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Authors: Martinović Mihailo M., Klein Kristopher G., Kasper Justin C., Case Anthony W., Korreck Kelly E., et al.
Title: The Enhancement of Proton Stochastic Heating in the Near-Sun Solar Wind
Abstract:

Stochastic heating (SH) is a nonlinear heating mechanism driven by the violation of magnetic moment invariance due to large-amplitude turbulent fluctuations producing diffusion of ions toward higher kinetic energies in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is frequently invoked as a mechanism responsible for the heating of ions in the solar wind. Here, we quantify for the first time the proton SH rate Q at radial distances from the Sun as close as 0.16 au, using measurements from the first two Parker Solar Probe encounters. Our results for both the amplitude and radial trend of the heating rate, Q ∝ r−2.5, agree with previous results based on the Helios data set at heliocentric distances from 0.3 to 0.9 au. Also in agreement wit. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 30 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab527f Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab527f
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Authors: Chen C. H. K., Bale S. D., Bonnell J. W., Borovikov D., Bowen T. A., et al.
Title: The Evolution and Role of Solar Wind Turbulence in the Inner Heliosphere
Abstract:

The first two orbits of the Parker Solar Probe spacecraft have enabled the first in situ measurements of the solar wind down to a heliocentric distance of 0.17 au (or 36 R ⊙  R⊙ ). Here, we present an analysis of this data to study solar wind turbulence at 0.17 au and its evolution out to 1 au. While many features remain similar, key differences at 0.17 au include increased turbulence energy levels by more than an order of magnitude, a magnetic field spectral index of −3/2 matching that of the velocity and both Elsasser fields, a lower magnetic compressibility consistent with a smaller slow-mode kinetic energy fraction, and a much smaller outer scale that has had time for substantial nonlinear processing. There is also an overall increase in the dominance o. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 53 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab60a3 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab60a3
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Authors: Squire J., Chandran B. D. G., and Meyrand R.
Title: In-situ Switchback Formation in the Expanding Solar Wind
Abstract:

Recent near-Sun solar-wind observations from Parker Solar Probe have found a highly dynamic magnetic environment, permeated by abrupt radial-field reversals, or "switchbacks." We show that many features of the observed turbulence are reproduced by a spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations advected by a radially expanding flow. Starting from simple superpositions of low-amplitude outward-propagating waves, our expanding-box compressible magnetohydrodynamic simulations naturally develop switchbacks because (i) the normalized amplitude of waves grows due to expansion and (ii) fluctuations evolve toward spherical polarization (i.e., nearly constant field strength). These results suggest that switchbacks form in situ in the expanding solar wind and are not indicative of impulsive processes in the. . .
Date: 03/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: L2 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab74e1 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ab74e1
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Authors: Phan T. D., Bale S. D., Eastwood J. P., Lavraud B., Drake J. F., et al.
Title: Parker Solar Probe In Situ Observations of Magnetic Reconnection Exhausts during Encounter 1
Abstract:

Magnetic reconnection in current sheets converts magnetic energy into particle energy. The process may play an important role in the acceleration and heating of the solar wind close to the Sun. Observations from Parker Solar Probe (PSP) provide a new opportunity to study this problem, as it measures the solar wind at unprecedented close distances to the Sun. During the first orbit, PSP encountered a large number of current sheets in the solar wind through perihelion at 35.7 solar radii. We performed a comprehensive survey of these current sheets and found evidence for 21 reconnection exhausts. These exhausts were observed in heliospheric current sheets, coronal mass ejections, and regular solar wind. However, we find that the majority of current sheets encountered around perihelion, whe. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 34 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab55ee Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab55ee
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Authors: Vech Daniel, Kasper Justin C., Klein Kristopher G., Huang Jia, Stevens Michael L., et al.
Title: Kinetic-scale Spectral Features of Cross Helicity and Residual Energy in the Inner Heliosphere
Abstract:

In this work, we present the first results from the flux angle (FA) operation mode of the Faraday Cup instrument on board the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). The FA mode allows rapid measurements of phase space density fluctuations close to the peak of the proton velocity distribution function with a cadence of 293 Hz. This approach provides an invaluable tool for understanding kinetic-scale turbulence in the solar wind and solar corona. We describe a technique to convert the phase space density fluctuations into vector velocity components and compute several turbulence parameters, such as spectral index, residual energy, and cross helicity during two intervals when the FA mode was used in PSP's first encounter at 0.174 au distance from the Sun.


Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 52 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab60a2 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab60a2
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Authors: Bandyopadhyay Riddhi, Matthaeus W. H., Parashar T. N., Chhiber R., Ruffolo D., et al.
Title: Observations of Energetic-particle Population Enhancements along Intermittent Structures near the Sun from the Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

Observations at 1 au have confirmed that enhancements in measured energetic-particle (EP) fluxes are statistically associated with "rough" magnetic fields, i.e., fields with atypically large spatial derivatives or increments, as measured by the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method. One way to interpret this observation is as an association of the EPs with trapping or channeling within magnetic flux tubes, possibly near their boundaries. However, it remains unclear whether this association is a transport or local effect; i.e., the particles might have been energized at a distant location, perhaps by shocks or reconnection, or they might experience local energization or re-acceleration. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP), even in its first two orbits, offers a unique opportunity to study. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab6220 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab6220
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Authors: Qudsi R. A., Maruca B. A., Matthaeus W. H., Parashar T. N., Bandyopadhyay Riddhi, et al.
Title: Observations of Heating along Intermittent Structures in the Inner Heliosphere from PSP Data
Abstract:

The solar wind proton temperature at 1 au has been found to be correlated with small-scale intermittent magnetic structures, i.e., regions with enhanced temperature are associated with coherent structures, such as current sheets. Using Parker Solar Probe data from the first encounter, we study this association using measurements of the radial proton temperature, employing the partial variance of increments (PVI) technique to identify intermittent magnetic structures. We observe that the probability density functions of high PVI events have higher median temperatures than those with lower PVI. The regions in space where PVI peaks were also locations that had enhanced temperatures when compared with similar regions, suggesting a heating mechanism in the young solar wind that is associated. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 46 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5c19 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5c19
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Authors: Duan Die, Bowen Trevor A., Chen Christopher H. K., Mallet Alfred, He Jiansen, et al.
Title: The Radial Dependence of Proton-scale Magnetic Spectral Break in Slow Solar Wind during PSP Encounter 2
Abstract:

Magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind are commonly observed to follow a power-law spectrum. Near proton-kinetic scales, a spectral break occurs that is commonly interpreted as a transition to kinetic turbulence. However, this transition is not yet entirely understood. By studying the scaling of the break with various plasma properties, it may be possible to constrain the processes leading to the onset of kinetic turbulence. Using data from the Parker Solar Probe, we measure the proton-scale break over a range of heliocentric distances, enabling a measurement of the transition from inertial to kinetic-scale turbulence under various plasma conditions. We find that the break frequency fb increases as the heliocentric distance r decreases in the slow solar wind following . . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 55 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab672d Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab672d
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Authors: Case A. W., Kasper Justin C., Stevens Michael L., Korreck Kelly E., Paulson Kristoff, et al.
Title: The Solar Probe Cup on the Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday cup instrument on board NASA's Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft designed to make rapid measurements of thermal coronal and solar wind plasma. The spacecraft is in a heliocentric orbit that takes it closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft, allowing measurements to be made where the coronal and solar wind plasma is being heated and accelerated. The SPC instrument was designed to be pointed directly at the Sun at all times, allowing the solar wind (which is flowing primarily radially away from the Sun) to be measured throughout the orbit. The instrument is capable of measuring solar wind ions with an energy between 100 and 6000 V (protons with speeds from 139 to 1072 km s−1). It also measures electrons with an energy/charge between . . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 43 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5a7b Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5a7b
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Authors: Réville Victor, Velli Marco, Rouillard Alexis P., Lavraud Benoit, Tenerani Anna, et al.
Title: Tearing Instability and Periodic Density Perturbations in the Slow Solar Wind
Abstract:

In contrast with the fast solar wind, which originates in coronal holes, the source of the slow solar wind is still debated. Often intermittent and enriched with low first ionization potential elements—akin to what is observed in closed coronal loops—the slow wind could form in bursty events nearby helmet streamers. Slow winds also exhibit density perturbations that have been shown to be periodic and could be associated with flux ropes ejected from the tip of helmet streamers, as shown recently by the WISPR white-light imager on board Parker Solar Probe (PSP). In this work, we propose that the main mechanism controlling the release of flux ropes is a flow-modified tearing mode at the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). We use magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar wind and coron. . .
Date: 05/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: L20 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab911d Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ab911d
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2019
Authors: Wilson Lynn B., Chen Li-Jen, Wang Shan, Schwartz Steven J., Turner Drew L., et al.
Title: Electron Energy Partition across Interplanetary Shocks. II. Statistics
Abstract:

A statistical analysis of 15,210 electron velocity distribution function (VDF) fits, observed within ±2 hr of 52 interplanetary (IP) shocks by the Wind spacecraft near 1 au, is presented. This is the second in a three-part series on electron VDFs near IP shocks. The electron velocity moment statistics for the dense, low-energy core, tenuous, hot halo, and field-aligned beam/strahl are a statistically significant list of values illustrated with both histograms and tabular lists for reference and baselines in future work. Given the large statistics in this investigation, the beam/strahl fit results in the upstream are now the most comprehensive attempt to parameterize the beam/strahl electron velocity moments in the ambient solar wind. The median density, temperature, beta, and temperatu. . .
Date: 12/2019 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 24 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5445 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5445
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Authors: Verscharen Daniel, Chandran Benjamin D. G., Jeong Seong-Yeop, Salem Chadi S., Pulupa Marc P., et al.
Title: Self-induced Scattering of Strahl Electrons in the Solar Wind
Abstract:

We investigate the scattering of strahl electrons by microinstabilities as a mechanism for creating the electron halo in the solar wind. We develop a mathematical framework for the description of electron-driven microinstabilities and discuss the associated physical mechanisms. We find that an instability of the oblique fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) mode is the best candidate for a microinstability that scatters strahl electrons into the halo. We derive approximate analytic expressions for the FM/W instability threshold in two different β c regimes, where β c is the ratio of the core electrons’ thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure, and confirm the accuracy of these thresholds through comparison with numerical solutions to the hot-plasma dispersion rela. . .
Date: 12/2019 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab4c30 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/ab4c30https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/ab4c30/
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2018
Authors: Bourdin Philippe, Singh Nishant K., and Brandenburg Axel
Title: Magnetic Helicity Reversal in the Corona at Small Plasma Beta
Abstract:

Solar and stellar dynamos shed small-scale and large-scale magnetic helicity of opposite signs. However, solar wind observations and simulations have shown that some distance above the dynamo both the small-scale and large-scale magnetic helicities have reversed signs. With realistic simulations of the solar corona above an active region now being available, we have access to the magnetic field and current density along coronal loops. We show that a sign reversal in the horizontal averages of the magnetic helicity occurs when the local maximum of the plasma beta drops below unity and the field becomes nearly fully force free. Hence, this reversal is expected to occur well within the solar corona and would not directly be accessible to in situ measurements with the Parker Solar Probe or . . .
Date: 12/2018 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 2 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae97a Available at: http://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/869/i=1/a=2?key=crossref.90fa7f41d90e2c8b57f8248c0437cc6b
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Authors: Chandran Benjamin D. G.
Title: Parametric instability, inverse cascade and the  range of solar-wind turbulence
Abstract:

In this paper, weak-turbulence theory is used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instability in three-dimensional low-β plasmas at wavelengths much greater than the ion inertial length under the assumption that slow magnetosonic waves are strongly damped. It is shown analytically that the parametric instability leads to an inverse cascade of Alfvén wave quanta, and several exact solutions to the wave kinetic equations are presented. The main results of the paper concern the parametric decay of Alfvén waves that initially satisfy e+ ≫ e-, where e+ and e- are the frequency (f) spectra of Alfvén waves propagating in opposite directions along the magnetic field lines. If e+ initially has a peak frequency fDate: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Plasma Physics DOI: 10.1017/S0022377818000016 Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0022377818000016/type/journal_article
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Authors: Perrone Denise, Stansby D, Horbury T, and Matteini L
Title: Radial evolution of the solar wind in pure high-speed streams: HELIOS revised observations
Abstract:

Spacecraft observations have shown that the proton temperature in the solar wind falls off with radial distance more slowly than expected for an adiabatic prediction. Usually, previous studies have been focused on the evolution of the solar-wind plasma by using the bulk speed as an order parameter to discriminate different regimes. In contrast, here, we study the radial evolution of pure and homogeneous fast streams (i.e. well-defined streams of coronal-hole plasma that maintain their identity during several solar rotations) by means of re-processed particle data, from the HELIOS satellites between 0.3 and 1 au. We have identified 16 intervals of unperturbed high-speed coronal-hole plasma, from three different sources and measured at different radial distances. The observations show tha. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3348 Available at: https://academic.oup.com/mnras/advance-article/doi/10.1093/mnras/sty3348/5237719http://academic.oup.com/mnras/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/mnras/sty3348/27082965/sty3348.pdf
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Authors: Perrone Denise, Stansby D, Horbury T S, and Matteini L
Title: Radial evolution of the solar wind in pure high-speed streams: HELIOS revised observations
Abstract:

Spacecraft observations have shown that the proton temperature in the solar wind falls off with radial distance more slowly than expected for an adiabatic prediction. Usually, previous studies have been focused on the evolution of the solar-wind plasma by using the bulk speed as an order parameter to discriminate different regimes. In contrast, here, we study the radial evolution of pure and homogeneous fast streams (i.e. well-defined streams of coronal-hole plasma that maintain their identity during several solar rotations) by means of re-processed particle data, from the HELIOS satellites between 0.3 and 1 au. We have identified 16 intervals of unperturbed high-speed coronal-hole plasma, from three different sources and measured at different radial distances. The observations show tha. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Pages: 3730 - 3737 DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3348 Available at: https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/483/3/3730/5237719http://academic.oup.com/mnras/article-pdf/483/3/3730/27299782/sty3348.pdf
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Authors: Amicis Raffaella ’, Matteini Lorenzo, and Bruno Roberto
Title: On slow solar wind with high Alfvénicity: from composition and microphysics to spectral properties
Abstract:

Alfvénic fluctuations are very common features in the solar wind and are found especially within the main portion of fast-wind streams while the slow wind usually is less Alfvénic and more variable. In general, the fast and slow winds show many differences, which span from the large-scale structure to small-scale phenomena, including also a different turbulent behaviour. Recent studies, however, have shown that even the slow wind can sometimes be highly Alfvénic, with fluctuations as large as those of the fast wind. This study is devoted to presenting many facets of this Alfvénic slow solar wind, including for example the study of the source regions and their connection to coronal structures, large-scale properties, and microscale phenomena and also impact on the spectral features. . . .
Date: 3/2019 Publisher: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3329 Available at: https://academic.oup.com/mnras/advance-article/doi/10.1093/mnras/sty3329/5245187http://academic.oup.com/mnras/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/mnras/sty3329/27125375/sty3329.pdf
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2017
Authors: Reid Hamish A. S., and Kontar Eduard P.
Title: Langmuir wave electric fields induced by electron beams in the heliosphere
Abstract:

Solar electron beams responsible for type III radio emission generate Langmuir waves as they propagate out from the Sun. The Langmuir waves are observed via in situ electric field measurements. These Langmuir waves are not smoothly distributed but occur in discrete clumps, commonly attributed to the turbulent nature of the solar wind electron density. Exactly how the density turbulence modulates the Langmuir wave electric fields is understood only qualitatively. Using weak turbulence simulations, we investigate how solar wind density turbulence changes the probability distribution functions, mean value and variance of the beam-driven electric field distributions. Simulations show rather complicated forms of the distribution that are dependent upon how the electric fields are sampled. Ge. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Astronomy & Astrophysics Pages: A44 DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629697 Available at: http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629697http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629697/pdf
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Authors: Kasper J. C., Klein K. G., Weber T., Maksimovic M., Zaslavsky A., et al.
Title: A Zone of Preferential Ion Heating Extends Tens of Solar Radii from the Sun
Abstract:

The extreme temperatures and nonthermal nature of the solar corona and solar wind arise from an unidentified physical mechanism that preferentially heats certain ion species relative to others. Spectroscopic indicators of unequal temperatures commence within a fraction of a solar radius above the surface of the Sun, but the outer reach of this mechanism has yet to be determined. Here we present an empirical procedure for combining interplanetary solar wind measurements and a modeled energy equation including Coulomb relaxation to solve for the typical outer boundary of this zone of preferential heating. Applied to two decades of observations by the Wind spacecraft, our results are consistent with preferential heating being active in a zone extending from the transition region in the low. . .
Date: 11/2017 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa84b1 Available at: http://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/849/i=2/a=126?key=crossref.a4fda357a12d19fd2ad1aa8a3897c78f
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2016
Authors: Klein Kristopher G., and Chandran Benjamin D. G.
Title: EVOLUTION OF THE PROTON VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION DUE TO STOCHASTIC HEATING IN THE NEAR-SUN SOLAR WIND
Abstract:

We investigate how the proton distribution function evolves when the protons undergo stochastic heating by strong, low-frequency, Alfvén-wave turbulence under the assumption that β is small. We apply our analysis to protons undergoing stochastic heating in the supersonic fast solar wind and obtain proton distributions at heliocentric distances ranging from 4 to 30 solar radii. We find that the proton distribution develops non-Gaussian structure with a flat core and steep tail. For r\gt 5 {R}{{S}}, the proton distribution is well approximated by a modified Moyal distribution. Comparisons with future measurements from Solar Probe Plus could be used to test whether stochastic heating is occurring in the solar-wind acceleration region.


Date: 03/2016 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 47 DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/47 Available at: http://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/820/i=1/a=47?key=crossref.3bba6a0e184137847bf77cde72a2fe1fhttp://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/820/i=1/a=47/pdfhttp://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/820/i=1/a=47?key=crossref.3bba6a0e184137847bf77cde72a2fe1f
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Authors: Klein K. G., and Howes G. G.
Title: MEASURING COLLISIONLESS DAMPING IN HELIOSPHERIC PLASMAS USING FIELD–PARTICLE CORRELATIONS
Abstract:

An innovative field-particle correlation technique is proposed that uses single-point measurements of the electromagnetic fields and particle velocity distribution functions to investigate the net transfer of energy from fields to particles associated with the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional plasmas, such as the solar wind. In addition to providing a direct estimate of the local rate of energy transfer between fields and particles, it provides vital new information about the distribution of that energy transfer in velocity space. This velocity-space signature can potentially be used to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism responsible for the damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind. The application of this novel field-particle co. . .
Date: 08/2016 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: L30 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/826/2/L30 Available at: http://stacks.iop.org/2041-8205/826/i=2/a=L30?key=crossref.1f33350dac6f20e78faa0a9e9d852985http://stacks.iop.org/2041-8205/826/i=2/a=L30/pdfhttp://stacks.iop.org/2041-8205/826/i=2/a=L30?key=crossref.1f33350dac6f20e78faa0a9e9d852985
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2015
Authors: Klein Kristopher G., Perez Jean C., Verscharen Daniel, Mallet Alfred, and Chandran Benjamin D. G.
Title: A MODIFIED VERSION OF TAYLOR’S HYPOTHESIS FOR SOLAR PROBE PLUS OBSERVATIONS
Abstract:

The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) spacecraft will explore the near-Sun environment, reaching heliocentric distances less than 10 {{R}}. Near Earth, spacecraft measurements of fluctuating velocities and magnetic fields taken in the time domain are translated into information about the spatial structure of the solar wind via Taylor’s “frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Near the perihelion of SPP, however, the solar-wind speed is comparable to the Alfvén speed, and Taylor’s hypothesis in its usual form does not apply. In this paper, we show that under certain assumptions, a modified version of Taylor’s hypothesis can be recovered in the near-Sun region. We consider only the transverse, non-compressive component of the fluctuations at length scales exceeding the proton gyrora. . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: L18 DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/801/1/L18 Available at: http://stacks.iop.org/2041-8205/801/i=1/a=L18?key=crossref.c92a2bde23ce9cdd58185dec581d5a09
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2014
Authors: Li T. C., Drake J. F., and Swisdak M.
Title: DYNAMICS OF DOUBLE LAYERS, ION ACCELERATION, AND HEAT FLUX SUPPRESSION DURING SOLAR FLARES
Abstract:

Observations of flare-heated electrons in the corona typically suggest confinement of electrons. The confinement mechanism, however, remains unclear. The transport of coronal hot electrons into ambient plasma was recently investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Electron transport was significantly suppressed by the formation of a highly localized, nonlinear electrostatic potential in the form of a double layer (DL). In this work large-scale PIC simulations are performed to explore the dynamics of DLs in larger systems where, instead of a single DL, multiple DLs are generated. The primary DL accelerates return current electrons, resulting in high velocity electron beams that interact with ambient ions. This forms a Buneman unstable system that spawns more DLs. Trapping of hea. . .
Date: 09/2014 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 7 DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/7 Available at: http://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/793/i=1/a=7?key=crossref.1ff276d1b5e9632b2d52ebb5720bc5e6
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Pages