Found 16 results
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2020
Authors: Berčič Laura, Larson Davin, Whittlesey Phyllis, Maksimovic Milan, Badman Samuel T., et al.
Title: Coronal Electron Temperature Inferred from the Strahl Electrons in the Inner Heliosphere: Parker Solar Probe and Helios Observations
Abstract:

The shape of the electron velocity distribution function plays an important role in the dynamics of the solar wind acceleration. Electrons are normally modeled with three components, the core, the halo, and the strahl. We investigate how well the fast strahl electrons in the inner heliosphere preserve the information about the coronal electron temperature at their origin. We analyzed the data obtained by two missions, Helios, spanning the distances between 65 and 215 RS, and Parker Solar Probe (PSP), reaching down to 35 RS during its first two orbits around the Sun. The electron strahl was characterized with two parameters: pitch-angle width (PAW) and the strahl parallel temperature (Ts∥). PSP observations confirm the already reported dependence of str. . .
Date: 04/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab7b7a Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/ab7b7a
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Authors: McManus Michael D., Bowen Trevor A., Mallet Alfred, Chen Christopher H. K., Chandran Benjamin D. G., et al.
Title: Cross Helicity Reversals in Magnetic Switchbacks
Abstract:

We consider 2D joint distributions of normalized residual energy, σr(s, t), and cross helicity, σc(s, t), during one day of Parker Solar Probe's (PSP's) first encounter as a function of wavelet scale s. The broad features of the distributions are similar to previous observations made by Helios in slow solar wind, namely well-correlated and fairly Alfvénic wind, except for a population with negative cross helicity that is seen at shorter wavelet scales. We show that this population is due to the presence of magnetic switchbacks, or brief periods where the magnetic field polarity reverses. Such switchbacks have been observed before, both in Helios data and in Ulysses data in the polar solar wind. Their abundance and short timescales as seen by PSP in its first enc. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 67 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab6dce Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365
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Authors: Cohen C. M. S., Christian E. R., Cummings A. C., Davis A. J., Desai M. I., et al.
Title: Energetic Particle Increases Associated with Stream Interaction Regions
Abstract:

The Parker Solar Probe was launched on 2018 August 12 and completed its second orbit on 2019 June 19 with perihelion of 35.7 solar radii. During this time, the Energetic Particle Instrument-Hi (EPI-Hi, one of the two energetic particle instruments comprising the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun, IS☉IS) measured seven proton intensity increases associated with stream interaction regions (SIRs), two of which appear to be occurring in the same region corotating with the Sun. The events are relatively weak, with observed proton spectra extending to only a few MeV and lasting for a few days. The proton spectra are best characterized by power laws with indices ranging from −4.3 to −6.5, generally softer than events associated with SIRs observed at 1 au and beyond. Helium spec. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 20 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab4c38 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab4c38
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Authors: Martinović Mihailo M., Klein Kristopher G., Kasper Justin C., Case Anthony W., Korreck Kelly E., et al.
Title: The Enhancement of Proton Stochastic Heating in the Near-Sun Solar Wind
Abstract:

Stochastic heating (SH) is a nonlinear heating mechanism driven by the violation of magnetic moment invariance due to large-amplitude turbulent fluctuations producing diffusion of ions toward higher kinetic energies in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is frequently invoked as a mechanism responsible for the heating of ions in the solar wind. Here, we quantify for the first time the proton SH rate Q at radial distances from the Sun as close as 0.16 au, using measurements from the first two Parker Solar Probe encounters. Our results for both the amplitude and radial trend of the heating rate, Q ∝ r−2.5, agree with previous results based on the Helios data set at heliocentric distances from 0.3 to 0.9 au. Also in agreement wit. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 30 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab527f Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab527f
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Authors: Panasenco Olga, Velli Marco, D’Amicis Raffaella, Shi Chen, Réville Victor, et al.
Title: Exploring Solar Wind Origins and Connecting Plasma Flows from the Parker Solar Probe to 1 au: Nonspherical Source Surface and Alfvénic Fluctuations
Abstract:

The magnetic field measurements of the FIELDS instrument on the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) have shown intensities, throughout its first solar encounter, that require a very low source surface (SS) height ( R SS ⩽1.8R ⊙  RSS⩽1.8R⊙ ) to be reconciled with magnetic field measurements at the Sun via potential field extrapolation (PFSS). However, during PSP's second encounter, the situation went back to a more classic SS height ( R SS ⩽2.5R ⊙  RSS⩽2.5R⊙ ). Here we use high-resolution observations of the photospheric magnetic field (Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) to calculate neutral lines and boundaries of the open field regions for SS heights from 1.2 to 2.5 RDate: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 54 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab61f4 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab61f4
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Authors: Szabo Adam, Larson Davin, Whittlesey Phyllis, Stevens Michael L., Lavraud Benoit, et al.
Title: The Heliospheric Current Sheet in the Inner Heliosphere Observed by the Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) completed its first solar encounter in 2018 November, bringing it closer to the Sun than any previous mission. This allowed in situ investigation of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) inside the orbit of Venus. The Parker observations reveal a well defined magnetic sector structure placing the spacecraft in a negative polarity region for most of the encounter. The observed current sheet crossings are compared to the predictions of both potential field source surface and magnetohydrodynamic models. All the model predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the observed crossings of the HCS. The models also generally agree that the HCS was nearly parallel with the solar equator during the inbound leg of the encounter and more significantly inclined dur. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 47 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5dac Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5dach
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Authors: Bowen Trevor A., Mallet Alfred, Huang Jia, Klein Kristopher G., Malaspina David M., et al.
Title: Ion-scale Electromagnetic Waves in the Inner Heliosphere
Abstract:

Understanding the physical processes in the solar wind and corona that actively contribute to heating, acceleration, and dissipation is a primary objective of NASA's Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission. Observations of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves at ion scales suggest that cyclotron resonance and wave─particle interactions are dynamically relevant in the inner heliosphere. A wavelet-based statistical study of circularly polarized events in the first perihelion encounter of PSP demonstrates that transverse electromagnetic waves at ion resonant scales are observed in 30─50% of radial field intervals. Average wave amplitudes of approximately 4 nT are measured, while the mean duration of wave events is on the order of 20 s; however, long-duration wave events can exist withou. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab6c65 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/
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Authors: Tenerani Anna, Velli Marco, Matteini Lorenzo, Réville Victor, Shi Chen, et al.
Title: Magnetic Field Kinks and Folds in the Solar Wind
Abstract:

Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations during its first encounter at 35.7 R have shown the presence of magnetic field lines that are strongly perturbed to the point that they produce local inversions of the radial magnetic field, known as switchbacks. Their counterparts in the solar wind velocity field are local enhancements in the radial speed, or jets, displaying (in all components) the velocity─magnetic field correlation typical of large amplitude Alfvén waves propagating away from the Sun. Switchbacks and radial jets have previously been observed over a wide range of heliocentric distances by Helios, Wind, and Ulysses, although they were prevalent in significantly faster streams than seen at PSP. Here we study via numerical magnetohydrodynamics simulations the evolut. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 32 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab53e1 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab53e1
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Authors: Malaspina David M., Halekas Jasper, Berčič Laura, Larson Davin, Whittlesey Phyllis, et al.
Title: Plasma Waves near the Electron Cyclotron Frequency in the Near-Sun Solar Wind
Abstract:

Data from the first two orbits of the Sun by Parker Solar Probe reveal that the solar wind sunward of 50 solar radii is replete with plasma waves and instabilities. One of the most prominent plasma wave power enhancements in this region appears near the electron cyclotron frequency (fce). Most of this wave power is concentrated in electric field fluctuations near 0.7 fce and fce, with strong harmonics of both frequencies extending above fce. At least two distinct, often concurrent, wave modes are observed, preliminarily identified as electrostatic whistler-mode waves and electron Bernstein waves. Wave intervals range in duration from a few seconds to hours. Both the amplitudes and number of detections of these near-fce waves increas. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 21 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab4c3b Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab4c3b
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Authors: Duan Die, Bowen Trevor A., Chen Christopher H. K., Mallet Alfred, He Jiansen, et al.
Title: The Radial Dependence of Proton-scale Magnetic Spectral Break in Slow Solar Wind during PSP Encounter 2
Abstract:

Magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind are commonly observed to follow a power-law spectrum. Near proton-kinetic scales, a spectral break occurs that is commonly interpreted as a transition to kinetic turbulence. However, this transition is not yet entirely understood. By studying the scaling of the break with various plasma properties, it may be possible to constrain the processes leading to the onset of kinetic turbulence. Using data from the Parker Solar Probe, we measure the proton-scale break over a range of heliocentric distances, enabling a measurement of the transition from inertial to kinetic-scale turbulence under various plasma conditions. We find that the break frequency fb increases as the heliocentric distance r decreases in the slow solar wind following . . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 55 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab672d Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab672d
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Authors: Rouillard Alexis P., Kouloumvakos Athanasios, Vourlidas Angelos, Kasper Justin, Bale Stuart, et al.
Title: Relating Streamer Flows to Density and Magnetic Structures at the Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

The physical mechanisms that produce the slow solar wind are still highly debated. Parker Solar Probe's (PSP's) second solar encounter provided a new opportunity to relate in situ measurements of the nascent slow solar wind with white-light images of streamer flows. We exploit data taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and the Wide Imager on Solar Probe to reveal for the first time a close link between imaged streamer flows and the high-density plasma measured by the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) experiment. We identify different types of slow winds measured by PSP that we relate to the spacecraft's magnetic connectivity (or not) to streamer flows. SWEAP measured high-density and highly variable plasma wh. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 37 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab579a Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab579a
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Authors: Horbury Timothy S., Woolley Thomas, Laker Ronan, Matteini Lorenzo, Eastwood Jonathan, et al.
Title: Sharp Alfvénic Impulses in the Near-Sun Solar Wind
Abstract:

Measurements of the near-Sun solar wind by the Parker Solar Probe have revealed the presence of large numbers of discrete Alfvénic impulses with an anti-sunward sense of propagation. These are similar to those previously observed near 1 au, in high speed streams over the Sun's poles and at 60 solar radii. At 35 solar radii, however, they are typically shorter and sharper than seen elsewhere. In addition, these spikes occur in "patches" and there are also clear periods within the same stream when they do not occur; the timescale of these patches might be related to the rate at which the spacecraft magnetic footpoint tracks across the coronal hole from which the plasma originated. While the velocity fluctuations associated with these spikes are typically under 100 km s−1, du. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 45 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5b15 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5b15
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Authors: Case A. W., Kasper Justin C., Stevens Michael L., Korreck Kelly E., Paulson Kristoff, et al.
Title: The Solar Probe Cup on the Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday cup instrument on board NASA's Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft designed to make rapid measurements of thermal coronal and solar wind plasma. The spacecraft is in a heliocentric orbit that takes it closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft, allowing measurements to be made where the coronal and solar wind plasma is being heated and accelerated. The SPC instrument was designed to be pointed directly at the Sun at all times, allowing the solar wind (which is flowing primarily radially away from the Sun) to be measured throughout the orbit. The instrument is capable of measuring solar wind ions with an energy between 100 and 6000 V (protons with speeds from 139 to 1072 km s−1). It also measures electrons with an energy/charge between . . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 43 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5a7b Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5a7b
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Authors: Korreck Kelly E., Szabo Adam, Chinchilla Teresa Nieves, Lavraud Benoit, Luhmann Janet, et al.
Title: Source and Propagation of a Streamer Blowout Coronal Mass Ejection Observed by the Parker Solar Probe
Abstract:

In the first orbit of the Parker Solar Probe (PSP), in situ thermal plasma and magnetic field measurements were collected as close as 35 RSun from the Sun, an environment that had not been previously explored. During the first orbit of PSP, the spacecraft flew through a streamer blowout coronal mass ejection (SBO-CME) on 2018 November 11 at 23:50 UT as it exited the science encounter. The SBO-CME on November 11 was directed away from the Earth and was not visible by L1 or Earth-based telescopes due to this geometric configuration. However, PSP and the STEREO-A spacecraft were able to make observations of this slow (v ≈ 380 km s−1) SBO-CME. Using the PSP data, STEREO-A images, and Wang─Sheeley─Arge model, the source region of the CME is found to be a helmet . . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 69 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab6ff9 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab6ff9
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Authors: Pulupa Marc, Bale Stuart D., Badman Samuel T., Bonnell J. W., Case Anthony W., et al.
Title: Statistics and Polarization of Type III Radio Bursts Observed in the Inner Heliosphere
Abstract:

We present initial results from the Radio Frequency Spectrometer, the high-frequency component of the FIELDS experiment on the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). During the first PSP solar encounter (2018 November), only a few small radio bursts were observed. During the second encounter (2019 April), copious type III radio bursts occurred, including intervals of radio storms where bursts occurred continuously. In this paper, we present initial observations of the characteristics of type III radio bursts in the inner heliosphere, calculating occurrence rates, amplitude distributions, and spectral properties of the observed bursts. We also report observations of several bursts during the second encounter that display circular polarization in the right-hand-polarized sense, with a degree of polari. . .
Date: 02/2020 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Pages: 49 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab5dc0 Available at: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4365/ab5dc0
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2015
Authors: Kasper Justin C., Abiad Robert, Austin Gerry, Balat-Pichelin Marianne, Bale Stuart D., et al.
Title: Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) Investigation: Design of the Solar Wind and Coronal Plasma Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus
Abstract:

The Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) Investigation on Solar Probe Plus is a four sensor instrument suite that provides complete measurements of the electrons and ionized helium and hydrogen that constitute the bulk of solar wind and coronal plasma. SWEAP consists of the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and the Solar Probe Analyzers (SPAN). SPC is a Faraday Cup that looks directly at the Sun and measures ion and electron fluxes and flow angles as a function of energy. SPAN consists of an ion and electron electrostatic analyzer (ESA) on the ram side of SPP (SPAN-A) and an electron ESA on the anti-ram side (SPAN-B). The SPAN-A ion ESA has a time of flight section that enables it to sort particles by their mass/charge ratio, permitting differentiation of ion species. SPAN-A and -B are r. . .
Date: 10/2015 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-015-0206-3 Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11214-015-0206-3http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11214-015-0206-3
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