Parker Solar Probe Bibliography

2021

The complex nonlinear dynamical phenomenon described as turbulence, is known to have a great impact on fluids, magnetohydrodynamic systems, and on plasmas. This paper reviews selected topics on turbulence in these systems, emphasizing the multiscale space-time properties of the turbulence cascade as it transfers energy from large scale reservoirs, through the inertial range, finally dissipating at kinetic scales and producing internal or thermal energy. Application to space and astrophysical plasmas is a pervasive theme. This paper is based on the Maxwell Prize address given at the 2019 American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics meeting in Fort Lauderdale.
2021


The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) routinely observes magnetic field deflections in the solar wind at distances less than 0.3 au from the Sun. These deflections are related to structures commonly called "switchbacks" (SBs), whose origins and characteristic properties are currently debated. Here, we use a database of visually selected SB intervals—and regions of solar wind plasma measured just before and after each SB—to examine plasma parameters, turbulent spectra from inertial to dissipation scales, and intermittency effects in these intervals. We find that many features, such as perpendicular stochastic heating rates and turbulence spectral slopes are fairly similar inside and outside of SBs. However, important kinetic properties, such as the characteristic break scale between the inertial to dissipation ranges differ inside and outside these intervals, as does the level of intermittency, which is notably enhanced inside SBs and in their close proximity, most…
2021


The recent rediscovery of magnetic field switchbacks or deflections embedded in the solar wind flow by the Parker Solar Probe mission lead to a huge interest in the modeling of the formation mechanisms and origin of these switchbacks. Several scenarios for their generation were put forth, ranging from lower solar atmospheric origins by reconnection, to being a manifestation of turbulence in the solar wind, and so on. Here we study some potential formation mechanisms of magnetic switchbacks in the lower solar atmosphere, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. The model is that of an intense flux tube in an open magnetic field region, aiming to represent a magnetic bright point opening up to an open coronal magnetic field structure, e.g., a coronal hole. The model is driven with different plasma flows in the photosphere, such as a fast up-shooting jet, as well as shearing flows generated by vortex motions or torsional oscillations. In all scenarios…
2021


The random walk of magnetic field lines is an important ingredient in understanding how the connectivity of the magnetic field affects the spatial transport and diffusion of charged particles. As solar energetic particles propagate away from near-solar sources, they interact with the fluctuating magnetic field, which modifies their distributions. We develop a formalism in which the differential equation describing the field line random walk contains both effects due to localized magnetic displacements and a non-stochastic contribution from the large-scale expansion. We use this formalism together with a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the inner-heliospheric solar wind, which includes a turbulence transport model, to estimate the diffusive spreading of magnetic field lines that originate in different regions of the solar atmosphere. We first use this model to quantify field line spreading at 1 au, starting from a localized solar source region, and find rms angular spreads of…
2021


Observations of plasma waves by the Fields Suite and of electrons by the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons Investigation on the Parker Solar Probe provide strong evidence for pitch angle scattering of strahl-energy electrons by narrowband whistler-mode waves at radial distances less than ∼0.3 au. We present two example intervals of a few hours each that include eight waveform captures with whistler-mode waves and 26 representative electron distributions that are examined in detail. Two were narrow, seventeen were clearly broadened, and eight were very broad. The two with narrow strahl occurred when there were either no whistlers or very intermittent low amplitude waves. Six of the eight broadest distributions were associated with intense, long duration waves. Approximately half of the observed electron distributions have features consistent with an energy-dependent scattering mechanism, as would be expected from interactions with narrowband waves. A comparison of the wave power…
2021


We present a 3D geometrical model to describe the propagation and expansion of CMEs in the interplanetary space based on radiative proxies to be implemented in previous procedures that use SXR and microwave emissions to estimate the Earth-directed CME propagation speed. We carefully selected a sample of 45 well-defined CME-ICME events to evaluate our model. We computed this 3D geometrical model for each event as a tool to improve the arrival time predictions based on radiative proxies. We conducted a different analysis for each radiative proxy: SXR emission and microwave emission at 9 GHz, and we compared the results separately with the observations by the Wind spacecraft. In general, the results showed that the implementation of our 3D geometrical model improves the predictions and provides an important complement to the arrival time prediction method based on radiative proxies, especially for CME events whose source origin were located at helio longitudes far from the central…
2021


Recent in situ measurements by the MMS and Parker Solar Probe missions bring interest to small-scale plasma dynamics (waves, turbulence, magnetic reconnection) in regions where the electron thermal energy is smaller than the magnetic one. Examples of such regions are the Earth s mangetosheath and the vicinity of the solar corona, and they are also encountered in other astrophysical systems. In this brief review, we consider simple physical models describing plasma dynamics in such low-electron-beta regimes, discuss their conservations laws and their limits of applicability.
2021


The first radial alignment between Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter spacecraft is used to investigate the evolution of solar wind turbulence in the inner heliosphere. Assuming ballistic propagation, two 1.5 hr intervals are tentatively identified as providing measurements of the same plasma parcels traveling from 0.1 to 1 au. Using magnetic field measurements from both spacecraft, the properties of turbulence in the two intervals are assessed. Magnetic spectral density, flatness, and high-order moment scaling laws are calculated. The Hilbert-Huang transform is additionally used to mitigate short sample and poor stationarity effects. Results show that the plasma evolves from a highly Alfvénic, less-developed turbulence state near the Sun, to fully developed and intermittent turbulence at 1 au. These observations provide strong evidence for the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence.
2021


The addition of Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to the Heliophysics System Observatory has allowed for the unprecedented ability to study Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) at multiple radial distances without significant temporal/longitudinal variations. On September 19, 2019, PSP observed a CIR at ∼0.5 au when it was nearly radially aligned with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO A) spacecraft at ∼1 au, allowing for an unambiguous assessment of the radial evolution of a single CIR. Bulk plasma and magnetic field signatures of the CIR evolve in a fashion characteristic to previous observations; however, the suprathermal ions are enhanced over a larger longitudinal range at PSP than at STEREO A, although at much lower intensities. The longitudinal spread appears to be largely a consequence of magnetic field line topology at CIRs between the compressed slow solar wind upstream and high speed stream following the CIR, underscoring the importance of the large scale…
2021


In the present paper, we describe a theoretical model of the generation of harmonic emissions of type III solar radio bursts. The goal of our study is to fully take into account the most efficient physical processes involved in the generation of harmonic electromagnetic emission via nonlinear coupling of Langmuir waves in randomly inhomogeneous plasma of solar wind ( $l+l^\prime \to t$ ). We revisit the conventional mechanism of coalescence of primarily generated and back-scattered Langmuir waves in quasihomogeneous plasma. Additionally, we propose and investigate another mechanism that generates harmonic emission only in a strongly inhomogeneous plasma: the nonlinear coupling of incident and reflected Langmuir waves inside localized regions with enhanced plasma density (clumps), in the close vicinity of the reflection point. Both mechanisms imply the presence of strong density fluctuations in plasma. We use the results of a probabilistic model of beam-plasma interaction and evaluate…
2021


Two states of the slow solar wind are identified from in situ measurements by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) inside 50 solar radii from the Sun. At such distances the wind measured by PSP has not yet undergone significant transformation related to the expansion and propagation of the wind. We focus in this study on the properties of the quiet solar wind with no magnetic switchbacks. The two states differ by their plasma beta, flux, and magnetic pressure. PSP s magnetic connectivity established with potential field source surface reconstructions, tested against extreme ultraviolet and white-light imaging, reveals the two states correspond to a transition from a streamer to an equatorial coronal hole. The expansion factors of magnetic field lines in the streamer are 20 times greater than those rooted near the center of the coronal hole. The very different expansion rates of the magnetic field result in different magnetic pressures measured by PSP in the two plasma states. Solar wind…
2021


The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) aims to explore the nascent solar wind close to the Sun. Meanwhile, PSP is also expected to encounter small objects like comets and asteroids. In this work, we survey the ephemerides to find the chance of a recent encounter and then model the interaction between released dusty plasmas and solar wind plasmas. On 2019 September 2, a comet-like object, the 322P/Solar and Heliosphere Observatory, just passed its perihelion flying to a heliocentric distance of 0.12 au and swept by PSP at a relative distance as close as 0.025 au. We present the dynamics of the dust particles released from 322P, forming a curved dust tail. Along the path of PSP in the simulated inner heliosphere, the states of plasma and magnetic field are sampled and illustrated, with the magnetic field sequences from simulation results being compared directly with the in situ measurements from PSP. Through the comparison, we suggest that 322P might be at a deficient activity level releasing…
2021


We provide a simple geometric explanation for the source of switchbacks and associated large and one-sided transverse flows in the solar wind observed by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). The more radial, sub-Parker spiral structure of the heliospheric magnetic field observed previously by Ulysses, ACE, and STEREO is created within rarefaction regions where footpoint motion from the source of fast into slow wind at the Sun creates a magnetic fieldline connection across solar wind speed shear. Conversely, when footpoints move from the source of slow wind into faster wind, a super-Parker spiral field structure is formed: below the Alfvén critical point, one-sided transverse field-aligned flows develop; above the Alfvén critical point, the field structure contracts between adjacent solar wind flows, and the radial field component decreases in magnitude with distance from the Sun, eventually reversing into a switchback. The sub-Parker and super-Parker spirals behave functionally as opposites…
2021


Abstract Depressions in magnetic field strength, commonly referred to as magnetic holes, are observed ubiquitously in space plasmas. Subproton-scale magnetic holes with spatial scales smaller than or on the order of a proton gyroradius, are likely supported by electron current vortices, rotating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. While there are numerous accounts of subproton-scale magnetic holes within the Earth’s magnetosphere, there are few, if any, reported observations in other space plasma environments. We present the first evidence of subproton-scale magnetic holes in the Venusian magnetosheath. During Parker Solar Probe’s first Venus Gravity Assist, the spacecraft crossed the planet’s bow shock and subsequently observed the Venusian magnetosheath. The FIELDS instrument suite onboard the spacecraft achieved magnetic and electric field measurements of magnetic hole structures. The electric fields associated with magnetic depressions are consistent with electron current…
2021


A growing body of evidence suggests that the solar wind is powered to a large extent by an Alfvén-wave (AW) energy flux. AWs energize the solar wind via two mechanisms: heating and work. We use high-resolution direct numerical simulations of reflection-driven AW turbulence (RDAWT) in a fast-solar-wind stream emanating from a coronal hole to investigate both mechanisms. In particular, we compute the fraction of the AW power at the coronal base ($P_\textrm AWb$) that is transferred to solar-wind particles via heating between the coronal base and heliocentric distance $r$, which we denote by $χ <SUB>H</SUB>(r)$, and the fraction that is transferred via work, which we denote by $χ <SUB>W</SUB>(r)$. We find that $χ <SUB>W</SUB>(r<SUB>A</SUB>)$ ranges from 0.15 to 0.3, where $r<SUB>A</SUB>$ is the Alfvén critical point. This value is small compared with one because the Alfvén speed $v<SUB>A</SUB>$ exceeds the outflow…
2021


Nonlinear ion-acoustic waves, ion holes, and electron holes have been observed on the Parker Solar Probe at a heliocentric distance of 35 solar radii. These time domain structures contain millisecond duration electric field spikes of several mV m<SUP>-1</SUP>. They are observed inside or at boundaries of switchbacks in the background magnetic field. Their presence in switchbacks indicates that both electron- and ion-streaming electrostatic instabilities occur there to thermalize electron and ion beams.
2021


After the launch of STEREO twin spacecraft, and most recently of Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe spacecraft, the next mission that will explore Sun-Earth interactions and how the Sun modulates the Heliosphere will be the "Lagrange" mission, which will consist of two satellites placed in orbit around L1 and L5 Sun-Earth Lagrangian points. Despite the significant novelties that will be provided by such a double vantage point, there will be also missing information, that are briefly discussed here. For future heliospheric missions, an alternative advantageous approach that has not been considered so far would be to place two twin spacecraft not in L1 and L5, but in L4 and L5 Lagrangian points. If these two spacecraft will be equipped with in situ instruments, and also remote sensing instruments measuring not only photospheric but also coronal magnetic fields, significant advancing will be possible. In particular, data provided by such a twin mission will allow to follow…
2021


We present a major update to the 3D coronal rope ejection (3DCORE) technique for modeling coronal mass ejection flux ropes in conjunction with an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) algorithm that is used for fitting the model to in situ magnetic field measurements. The model assumes an empirically motivated torus-like flux rope structure that expands self-similarly within the heliosphere, is influenced by a simplified interaction with the solar wind environment, and carries along an embedded analytical magnetic field. The improved 3DCORE implementation allows us to generate extremely large ensemble simulations that we then use to find global best-fit model parameters using an ABC sequential Monte Carlo algorithm. The usage of this algorithm, under some basic assumptions on the uncertainty of the magnetic field measurements, allows us to furthermore generate estimates on the uncertainty of model parameters using only a single in situ observation. We apply our model to synthetically…
2021


The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft completed its second Venus gravity assist maneuver (VGA2) on December 26, 2019. For a 20 min interval surrounding closest approach, the PSP/FIELDS Radio Frequency Spectrometer (RFS) was set to "burst mode," recording radio spectra from 1.3 to 19.2 MHz at sub second cadence. We analyze this burst mode data, searching for signatures of radio frequency "sferic" emission from lightning discharges. During the burst mode interval, only four spectra were observed with strong impulsive signals, and all four could be attributed to saturation of the RFS high gain stage by in situ electrostatic plasma waves. These RFS measurements during VGA2 are consistent with previous non detection of radio frequency lightning signals from Venus reported by Gurnett et al. (2001, <A href="https://doi.org/10.1038/35053009">https://doi.org/10.1038/35053009</A>).
2021


The hot and diffuse nature of the Sun s extended atmosphere allows it to persist in non-equilibrium states for long enough that wave-particle instabilities can arise and modify the evolution of the expanding solar wind. Determining which instabilities arise, and how significant a role they play in governing the dynamics of the solar wind, has been a decades-long process involving in situ observations at a variety of radial distances. With new measurements from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP), we can study what wave modes are driven near the Sun, and calculate what instabilities are predicted for different models of the underlying particle populations. We model two hours-long intervals of PSP/SPAN-i measurements of the proton phase-space density during the PSP s fourth perihelion with the Sun using two commonly used descriptions for the underlying velocity distribution. The linear stability and growth rates associated with the two models are calculated and compared. We find that both…
2021


The search coil magnetometer (SCM) measures the magnetic signature of solar wind fluctuations with three components in the 3 Hz-50 kHz range and one single component in the 1 kHz-1 MHz range. This instrument is important for providing in situ observations of transients caused by interplanetary shocks and reconnection, for the identification of electromagnetic wave modes in plasmas and the determination of their characteristics (planarity, polarization, ellipticity, and k vector) and for studying the turbulent cascade in the kinetic range. Two similar triaxial search coils have been built for the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions. Here we describe the science objectives of both missions which led to the SCM design and present the characteristics of the two instruments.
2021


The scaling of the turbulent spectra provides a key measurement that allows us to discriminate between different theoretical predictions of turbulence. In the solar wind, this has driven a large number of studies dedicated to this issue using in situ data from various orbiting spacecraft. While a semblance of consensus exists regarding the scaling in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and dispersive ranges, the precise scaling in the transition range and the actual physical mechanisms that control it remain open questions. Using the high-resolution data in the inner heliosphere from the Parker Solar Probe mission, we find that the sub-ion scales (i.e., at the frequency f ∼ [2, 9] Hz) follow a power-law spectrum f<SUP>α</SUP> with a spectral index α varying between -3 and -5.7. Our results also show that there is a trend toward an anticorrelation between the spectral slopes and the power amplitudes at the MHD scales, in agreement with previous studies: the higher the power…
2021


Comparative studies of fast and slow solar wind streams performed over the past decades have illustrated several differences between the plasma regimes for these different flows, examples including features such as temperatures, particle distribution function anisotropies, and the nature of the embedded turbulence, specifically the Alfvénicity of the fluctuations. Though this two state classification of the solar wind primarily based on flow speed has been widely adopted, more in depth studies have found that slow solar wind should be further categorized, flow speed not being a sufficient descriptor of the plasma state. Within this framework, slow solar wind streams with a strong Alfvénic character have been identified and characterized, showing that in many ways they resemble fast solar wind. The similarities between fast and slow Alfvénic wind regimes have been explained in terms of a similar solar origin, with the latter corresponding to slow winds emanating from rapidly diverging…
2021


High time-resolution solar wind magnetic field data are employed to study statistics describing intermittency near the first perihelion (∼35.6 R<SUB>⊙</SUB>) of the Parker Solar Probe mission. A merged data set employing two instruments on the FIELDS suite enables broadband estimation of higher-order moments of magnetic field increments, with five orders established with reliable accuracy. The duration, cadence, and low noise level of the data permit evaluation of scale dependence of the observed intermittency from the inertial range to deep subproton scales. The results support multifractal scaling in the inertial range, and monofractal but non-Gaussian scaling in the subproton range, thus clarifying suggestions based on data near Earth that had remained ambiguous due to possible interference of the terrestrial foreshock. The physics of the transition to monofractality remains unclear but we suggest that it is due to a scale-invariant population of current sheets between…
2021


Depressions in magnetic field strength, commonly referred to as magnetic holes, are observed ubiquitously in space plasmas. Subproton scale magnetic holes with spatial scales smaller than or on the order of a proton gyroradius, are likely supported by electron current vortices, rotating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. While there are numerous accounts of subproton scale magnetic holes within the Earth s magnetosphere, there are few, if any, reported observations in other space plasma environments. We present the first evidence of subproton scale magnetic holes in the Venusian magnetosheath. During Parker Solar Probe s first Venus Gravity Assist, the spacecraft crossed the planet s bow shock and subsequently observed the Venusian magnetosheath. The FIELDS instrument suite onboard the spacecraft achieved magnetic and electric field measurements of magnetic hole structures. The electric fields associated with magnetic depressions are consistent with electron current vortices…
2021


Spectroscopic observations at extreme- and far-ultraviolet wavelengths have revealed systematic upflows in the solar transition region and corona. These upflows are best seen in the network structures of the quiet Sun and coronal holes, boundaries of active regions, and dimming regions associated with coronal mass ejections. They have been intensively studied in the past two decades because they are likely to be closely related to the formation of the solar wind and heating of the upper solar atmosphere. We present an overview of the characteristics of these upflows, introduce their possible formation mechanisms, and discuss their potential roles in the mass and energy transport in the solar atmosphere. Although past investigations have greatly improved our understanding of these upflows, they have left us with several outstanding questions and unresolved issues that should be addressed in the future. New observations from the Solar Orbiter mission, the Daniel K. Inouye Solar…
2021


Magnetic reconnection has been suggested to play an important role in the dynamics and energetics of plasma turbulence by spacecraft observations, simulations, and theory over the past two decades, and recently, by magnetosheath observations of MMS. A new method based on magnetic flux transport (MFT) has been developed to identify reconnection activity in turbulent plasmas. This method is applied to a gyrokinetic simulation of two-dimensional (2D) plasma turbulence. Results on the identification of three active reconnection X-points are reported. The first two X-points have developed bidirectional electron outflow jets. Beyond the category of electron-only reconnection, the third X-point does not have bidirectional electron outflow jets because the flow is modified by turbulence. In all cases, this method successfully identifies active reconnection through clear inward and outward flux transport around the X-points. This transport pattern defines reconnection and produces a new…
2021


Abstract The addition of Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to the Heliophysics System Observatory has allowed for the unprecedented ability to study Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) at multiple radial distances without significant temporal/longitudinal variations. On September 19, 2019, PSP observed a CIR at ∼0.5 au when it was nearly radially aligned with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft at ∼1 au, allowing for an unambiguous assessment of the radial evolution of a single CIR. Bulk plasma and magnetic field signatures of the CIR evolve in a fashion characteristic to previous observations; however, the suprathermal ions are enhanced over a larger longitudinal range at PSP than at STEREO-A, although at much lower intensities. The longitudinal spread appears to be largely a consequence of magnetic field line topology at CIRs between the compressed slow solar wind upstream and high-speed stream following the CIR, underscoring the importance of the large-…
2021


The first self-consistent simulations of electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a macroscale system are presented. Consistent with solar flare observations, the spectra of energetic electrons take the form of power laws that extend more than two decades in energy. The drive mechanism for these nonthermal electrons is Fermi reflection in growing and merging magnetic flux ropes. A strong guide field suppresses the production of nonthermal electrons by weakening the Fermi drive mechanism. For a weak guide field the total energy content of nonthermal electrons dominates that of the hot thermal electrons even though their number density remains small. Our results are benchmarked with the hard x-ray, radio, and extreme ultraviolet observations of the X8.2-class solar flare on September 10, 2017.
2021